H2O dihydrogen monoxide. A colourless, tasteless liquid with some very peculiar properties that stem from the bent H-O-H structure of its molecules. Water is distinguished from other common terrestrial substances in existing in all three phases at atmospheric temperatures and pressures. The phase changes, are of great significance in many geophysical processes. The same is true of the large specific heat of liquid water and ice relative to both land surface and atmosphere. Water's complex absorption spectrum gives rise to the greenhouse effect.

Fresh water at atmospheric pressure is used as a standard for describing the relative density of liquids, the standard for liquid capacity, and the standard for fluid flow. The melting and boiling points of water are the basis for the Celsius temperature system. Water is the only byproduct of the combination of hydrogen and oxygen and is produced during the burning of any hydrocarbon. Water is the only substance that expands on freezing as well as by heating and has a maximum density at 4°C.

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Density 998 (Ice: 917) kgm-3Clip
Melting Point 273 KClip
Boiling Point 373 KClip
Linear expansivity (Ice: 5.0E-5) K-1Clip
Specific heat capacity 4190 Jkg-1K-1Clip
Latent heat of evaporation 2260000 Jkg-1Clip
Thermal conductivity 0.591 Wm-1K-1Clip
Refractive index 1.333 at 589.3nm 101.3kPa 0CClip
Dielectric constant 80 Clip
Acoustic wave velocity (longitudinal bulk waves) 1498 ms-1Clip
Bulk Modulus of Rigidity 2050000000 Nm-2Clip
Surface Tension 0.0727 Nm-1Clip
Viscosity 0.001 Nsm-2Clip
Kinematic Viscosity 1.00200400801603E-06 m2s-1Clip
Electromotive Series -1.23 VClip
Triple Point 273.16 KClip
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See also: Anhydrous, Atmometer, Atmometry, Brakish Water, Carbonate Water Hardness, Drinking Water, Heavy Water, Hydrogen, Hydrophilic, Hydrophobic, Hygroscopic, Ice, Oxygen, Permanent Hardness, Sour Water, Steam, Temporary Water Hardness, Waste Water, Water Electrolysis, Water Glycol Fluid, Water Hammer, Water Hardness, Water Softener, Water Vapour, Wetting.

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Subjects: Chemistry Physics

Water Encyclopedia Acid Rain to Water Quality.
International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam Properties of water and steam, particularly thermophysical properties and other aspects of high-temperature steam, water and aqueous mixtures that are relevant to thermal power cycles and other industrial applications.
Every Last Drop Educational website about water and how much we use.