The portion of the atmosphere, closest to the surface of the earth and up to a height of approximately 10 to 20km (averaging 9 km in high latitudes to 16 km in the tropics), where all weather phenomena take place.
This region has a more or less regular decrease of air temperature with increasing altitude, considerable vertical wind motion, appreciable water vapour, and weather.
Dynamically, the troposphere can be divided into the following layers:
- surface boundary layer
- Ekamn layer
- free atmosphere.
In the troposphere, temperatures generally decrease with height.
Trapping of an electromagnetic wave, in a waveguide action, between two layers of the troposphere, or between a layer of the troposphere and the earth′s surface.
The response time of the troposphere is relatively short, from days to weeks.
The response time of the strongly coupled surface-troposphere system is slow compared to that of the upper troposphere or stratosphere, as it is mainly determined by the oceans.