Transport Topics

Aerodrome
Alternative name for Airfield.
Aircraft
Any structure, machine, or contrivance, especially a vehicle, designed to be supported by the air.
Airfield
An area set aside for the operation of aircraft.
All Electric Range
The distance over a given drive cycle that a hybrid vehicle can travel on electric power only.
Alternative Fuels
Substitutes for traditional liquid, oil-derived motor vehicle fuels like gasoline and diesel.
APU
Abbreviation of Auxiliary Power Unit.
Astronaut
A person who rides in a space vehicle.
Automobile
A self-powered vehicle that travels on land typically with three or four wheels and with 2 to 9 seats.
Auxiliary Power Unit
A device that converts high density fuel into electrical power.
Aviation
Lists all Aviation topics in the Encyclopaedia
B100 Biodiesel
100% biodiesel.
B20 Biodiesel
A blend of biodiesel fuel with petroleum-based diesel where 20% of the volume is biodiesel.
Ballast Tank
Tanks at the bottom or sides of a ship which are filled with seawater for ballasting purpose.
Balloon
A lighter than air craft. The Montgolfier brothers made the first flight in a hot air balloon in 1783.
Bin
A set of emissions standards under the new U.S. Tier 2 emissions program.
Biodiesel
Diesel fuel derived from renewable lipid feedstocks, such as vegetable oils and animal fats.
Biodiesel B100
100% (neat) biodiesel. The mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable lipid feedstocks, such as vegetable oils and animal fats, diesel engines

Biodiesel B20
A blend of biodiesel fuel with petroleum-based diesel where 20% of the volume is biodiesel.
Boat
A small craft that floats on water.
Brunel, Isambard Kingdom
Creator of the Great Western Railway, bridge builder and revolutionary naval architect.
CAA
Abbreviation of Civil Aviation Authority.
CAFE
Corporate Average Fuel Economy
Car
A more common name for an automobile.
Catalytic Converter
An air pollution abatement device that removes pollutants from motor vehicle exhaust, either by oxidizing them into carbon dioxide and water or reducing them to nitrogen.
Ceiling
The overhead upper surface.
Civil Aviation Authority
The UK′s independent specialist aviation regulator. Its activities include economic regulation, airspace policy, safety regulation and consumer protection.
Corporate Average Fuel Economy
A U.S. regulation requiring auto companies to meet certain sales weighted average fuel economy levels for passenger cars and light trucks and report these numbers annually.
Derated Engine
An engine with a restricted power output.
Differential GPS
A technique for overcoming GPS position determination errors.
Drag Link Steering System
Steering system used with solid axles.
Drop Tank
An externally carried auxiliary tank, usually to contain fuel, which may be jettisoned if necessary.
Dry Weight
The weight of a machine or vehicle without its lubricants or fuel.
E10 Ethanol
Ethanol mixture that contains 10% ethanol, 90% unleaded gasoline.
E85 Ethanol
Refers to a fuel blend of 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline.
Electric Vehicle
A vehicle with one or more electric motors for propulsion.
Engines
Lists all Engines topics in the Encyclopaedia
Ethanol E10
Ethanol mixture that contains 10% ethanol, 90% unleaded gasoline.

Ethanol E85
Refers to a fuel blend of 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline.

Evaporative Emissions
Hydrocarbon vapours that escape from a fuel storage tank, a vehicle fuel tank or vehicle fuel system.
Flexible Fuel Vehicle
A vehicle that can be run on any blend of unleaded gasoline with up to 85 percent ethanol.
Floatplane
Aircraft which is supported on the water by floats. Also known as a seaplane.
Floor
The walking surface of a room or vehicle.
Flying Boat
A heavier than air craft that can take-off and land on water and the main fuselage is made water-tight.
Flywheel Battery
A battery in which the energy is stored in a flywheel, electrical energy is added or removed from the rotating flywheel using an electric motor.
Fuel Cycle
The processes involved in extracting a fuel in its native form, converting it to a useful product, transporting it to market, and consuming it at its final destination.
Fuselage
The main body of the aircraft.
Gasohol
Ethanol mixture that contains 10% ethanol, 90% unleaded gasoline.
Gasoline Gallon Equivalent
A unit for measuring alternative fuels so that they can be compared with gasoline on an energy equivalent basis.
Grade of a Slope
The pitch of a slope, and is often expressed as a percent tangent, or rise over run.
Ground Clearance
Distance between underside of a vehicle and the ground.
HEV
Abbreviation of Hybrid Electric Vehicle.
Hybrid Electric Vehicle
A vehicle powered by two or more energy sources, one of which is electricity.
Hybrid Vehicle
A vehicle that combines a conventional propulsion system and a rechargeable energy storage system.
Hydrogen Economy
A scenario where the world uses hydrogen as the primary energy carrier in place of fossil fuels.
Hydrogen Fuelled Vehicle
A vehicle that uses hydrogen stored onboard as the energy source for motive power.
Hydrogen Storage
There are types of hydrogen storage: compressed gas, liquid or chemical.
ILEV
Abbreviation of Inherently Low Emission Vehicle.
Inherently Low Emission Vehicle
Any vehicle that is certified to meet transitional low-emission vehicle standards established by the California Air Resources Board and does not emit any evaporative emissions.
Jet Engine
An engine that discharges a fast moving jet of fluid.
LEV
Abbreviation of Low Emission Vehicle.
Lever Arm Steering System
This steering system allows large steering angles to be achieved at the wheels.
Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers
These are liquid pumpable, easily rechargeable and have acceptable gravimetric storage densities, similar volumetric storage densities to cryogenic liquid hydrogen.
LOHC
Abbreviation of Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers.
Low Emission Vehicle
A level of standards for tailpipe emissions.
Micro Hybrid Vehicle
Also known as a simple engine stop-start system as the main advantage is stopping the engine when the vehicle is stationary and then restarting the engine before pulling away.
Mild Hybrid Vehicle
An electric motor allows some overrun energy to be absorbed and to stop-start the engine when the vehicle is stationary.
Monorail
A single rail train system.
Natural Gas Vehicle
Vehicles that are powered by compressed or liquefied natural gas.
Near Neat Fuel
Fuel that is virtually free from admixture or dilution.
PAH
Abbreviation of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons.
Parallel Hybrid Vehicle
The power may be provided by the internal combustion engine or the electric motor or a combination of the two.
Partial Zero Emission Vehicle
A vehicle that meets SULEV tailpipe emissions and has zero fuel evaporative emissions.
Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Aromatic hydrocarbons with two or more (up to five or six) benzene rings joined in various, more or less clustered forms.
Power-Split Hybrid Vehicle
The power may be provided by the internal combustion engine or the electric motor or a combination of the two.
PZEV
Abbreviation of Partial Zero Emission Vehicle.
Rack and Pinion Steering
The most common steering system on passenger cars.
Regenerative Braking
The absorption and re-use of energy dissipated whilst braking a vehicle.
Remotely Piloted Vehicle
Directed usually by radio by a pilot in another aircraft or based on the ground.
Ride Height
Distance between the underside of a vehicle and the ground.
Roll
The oscillation of a rigid body which consists primarily of angular displacement about a central longitudinal axis with respect to its static position.
Rolling Friction
Another name for Rolling Resistance.
Rolling Resistance
The resistance that occurs when a round object such as a ball or tire rolls on a flat surface.
Rotary Engine
The crankshaft is fixed and the crankcase, pistons and cylinders rotate with the propeller.
Rotor
A rotating part.
Specific Fuel Consumption
The amount of fuel needed to provide a given power for a given period.
Steering
The collection of components, linkages, etc. which will allow for a vessel or vehicle to follow the desired course.
SULEV
Abbreviation of Super Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle.
Super Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle
A level of standards for tailpipe emissions.
THC
Abbreviation of Total Hydrocarbons.
TLEV
Abbreviation of Transitional Low Emission Vehicle.
Total Hydrocarbons
All of the hydrocarbon emissions from an internal combustion engine.
Traction Battery
A battery designed to be used to provide the power to move a vehicle.
Transitional Low Emission Vehicle
A vehicle that is certified to meet the TLEV emission standards established by the California Air Resources Board.
Unladen Weight
The actual weight of a vehicle or combination with no payload.
Vehicle
A means of transport, generally meaning an automobile.
Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag
Resistance of a vehicle body to motion through the air.
Vehicle Emissions
Harmful pollutants to the health and the environment include particulates, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, lead, and various oxides of nitrogen.
Vehicle Exterior Noise
Noise produced by a land based vehicle that is radiated to the surrounding environment.
Wankel Engine
A rotary engine with a rotor rotating in an oval cylinder. Named after it′s designer Felix Wankel.
Wind Tunnel
A tunnel with a large fan that is used by engineers to test the effects of high winds on a structure.
Yaw
The rotation of a body about a vertical axis.
Yaw Axis
A vertical axis through an aircraft, rocket, or similar body, about which the body yaws.
Zero Emission Vehicle
A level of standards for tailpipe emissions.
ZEV
Abbreviation of Zero Emission Vehicle.

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