Thermal Conduction

The transfer of thermal energy by collisions of the atoms or molecules within a substance.

Thermal conductivity varies with temperature, but we will consider it constant in this class. The conductivity of most solids falls with increasing temperature but for most gases it rises with increasing temperature.

It is measured by recording the heat flux flowing from surface at temperature T1 to one at T2 in the material, separated by a distance x:


where
J = heat flux [Wm-2]
T1, T2 = temperature at each surface [K]
x = distance between surfaces [m]
λ = thermal conductivity [Wm-1K-1]

In practice, the measurement is not easy (particularly for materials with low conductivities), but reliable data are now generally available.
Click on an item to paste into clipboard or use clipboard symbol at end to clipboard all values
Acetic Acid 0.18 Wm-1K-1Clip Acetone 0.161 Wm-1K-1Clip Acetylene 0.0184 at STP Wm-1K-1Clip
Aluminium 236 Wm-1K-1Clip Aluminium 1050 230 Wm-1K-1Clip Aluminium 1199 243 Wm-1K-1Clip
Aluminium 3003 190 Wm-1K-1Clip Aluminium 4000 series 148 Wm-1K-1Clip Aluminium 5005 201 Wm-1K-1Clip
Aluminium 6063 200 Wm-1K-1Clip Aluminium 6066 147 Wm-1K-1Clip Aluminium Oxide 18 to 36 Wm-1K-1Clip
Ammonia 0.0218 Wm-1K-1Clip Antimony 25.5 Wm-1K-1Clip Argon 0.0162 Wm-1K-1Clip
Asbestos 0.17 Wm-1K-1Clip Asphalt 0.74 Wm-1K-1Clip Bakelite 17 Wm-1K-1Clip
Balsa Wood 0.055 Wm-1K-1Clip Beeswax 0.25 Wm-1K-1Clip Benzene 0.14 Wm-1K-1Clip
Beryllium 218 Wm-1K-1Clip Bismuth 8.2 Wm-1K-1Clip Bitumen 0.17 Wm-1K-1Clip
Boron 32 Wm-1K-1Clip Brass 110 Wm-1K-1Clip Bronze 180 Wm-1K-1Clip
Cadmium 97 Wm-1K-1Clip Caesium 36 Wm-1K-1Clip Carbon Dioxide 0.0145 Wm-1K-1Clip
Carbon Disulphide 0.144 Wm-1K-1Clip Carbon Monoxide 0.0232 Wm-1K-1Clip Carbon Tetrachloride 0.103 Wm-1K-1Clip
Cardboard 0.21 Wm-1K-1Clip Cerium 11 Wm-1K-1Clip Charcoal 0.2 Wm-1K-1Clip
Chlorine 0.0072 Wm-1K-1Clip Chloroform 0.121 Wm-1K-1Clip Chromium 96.5 Wm-1K-1Clip
Chromium Oxide 9.99 to 32.94 Wm-1K-1Clip Cobalt 105 Wm-1K-1Clip Concrete 0.1 Wm-1K-1Clip
Copper 385 to 403 Wm-1K-1Clip Cork 0.05 Wm-1K-1Clip Dysprosium 10.5 Wm-1K-1Clip
Erbium 15 Wm-1K-1Clip Ethylene 0.0164 Wm-1K-1Clip Fused Silica 1.38 Wm-1K-1Clip
Gadolinium 10 Wm-1K-1Clip Gallium 41 Wm-1K-1Clip Glass 0.04 to 0.8 Wm-1K-1Clip
Glycerol 0.27 Wm-1K-1Clip Gold 296 to 319 Wm-1K-1Clip Graphene 4840 to 5300 Wm-1K-1Clip
Hafnium 23 Wm-1K-1Clip Helium 0.1415 Wm-1K-1Clip Holmium 16 Wm-1K-1Clip
Hydrogen 0.1684 Wm-1K-1Clip Hydrogen Sulphide 0.012 Wm-1K-1Clip Indium 84 Wm-1K-1Clip
Invar 10.15 Wm-1K-1Clip Iridium 147 Wm-1K-1Clip Iron 60 to 84 Wm-1K-1Clip
Kapok 0.035 Wm-1K-1Clip Lanthanum 13 Wm-1K-1Clip Lead 35 Wm-1K-1Clip
Lithium 86 Wm-1K-1Clip Lutetium 17 Wm-1K-1Clip Magnesium 150 Wm-1K-1Clip
Manganese 8 Wm-1K-1Clip Mercury Hg 7.96 Wm-1K-1Clip Methane 0.0302 Wm-1K-1Clip
Methyl Alcohol 0.201 Wm-1K-1Clip Mica 0.6 to 0.7 Wm-1K-1Clip Mineral Wool 0.04 Wm-1K-1Clip
Molybdenum 139 Wm-1K-1Clip Monel 210 Wm-1K-1Clip Nickel 59 to 94 Wm-1K-1Clip
Niobium 53 Wm-1K-1Clip Nitric Oxide 0.0238 Wm-1K-1Clip Nitrobenzene 0.16 Wm-1K-1Clip
Nitrous Oxide 0.0151 Wm-1K-1Clip Nylon 0.2 to 0.25 Wm-1K-1Clip Oak 0.17 Wm-1K-1Clip
Olive Oil 0.17 Wm-1K-1Clip Osmium 88 Wm-1K-1Clip Oxygen 0.0244 Wm-1K-1Clip
Palladium 72 Wm-1K-1Clip Paper 0.06 Wm-1K-1Clip Paraffin Oil 0.15 Wm-1K-1Clip
Paraffin Wax 0.25 Wm-1K-1Clip Plasticine 0.65 to 0.8 Wm-1K-1Clip Platinum 69 to 72 Wm-1K-1Clip
Plutonium 6 Wm-1K-1Clip Plywood 0.125 Wm-1K-1Clip Polycarbonate 0.19 to 0.22 Wm-1K-1Clip
Polymethyl Methacrylate Resin 0.2 Wm-1K-1Clip Polystyrene 0.08 (Expanded 0.036) Wm-1K-1Clip Polytetrafluoroethylene 0.3 Wm-1K-1Clip
Porcelain 1.5 Wm-1K-1Clip Potassium 104 Wm-1K-1Clip Praseodymium 12 Wm-1K-1Clip
Quartz 6.2 to 10.7 Wm-1K-1Clip Rhenium 49 Wm-1K-1Clip Rhodium 151 Wm-1K-1Clip
Rubidium 58 Wm-1K-1Clip Ruthenium 117 Wm-1K-1Clip Samarium 13 Wm-1K-1Clip
Scandium 16 Wm-1K-1Clip Silver 419 to 428 Wm-1K-1Clip Silver Bromide 1.21 Wm-1K-1Clip
Silver Sand 0.3 to 0.4 Wm-1K-1Clip Sodium 142 Wm-1K-1Clip Sodium I Fluoride 3.746 Wm-1K-1Clip
Stainless Steel 303 16.3 Wm-1K-1Clip Stainless Steel 304 15.5 Wm-1K-1Clip Steel 63 Wm-1K-1Clip
Sulphur Dioxide 0.0077 Wm-1K-1Clip Tantalum 57 Wm-1K-1Clip Technetium 51 Wm-1K-1Clip
Terbium 10.5 Wm-1K-1Clip Thallium 47 Wm-1K-1Clip Thorium 54 Wm-1K-1Clip
Thulium 17 Wm-1K-1Clip Tin 65 to 68 Wm-1K-1Clip Titanium 23 Wm-1K-1Clip
Toluene 0.134 Wm-1K-1Clip Tungsten 177 Wm-1K-1Clip Turpentine 0.136 Wm-1K-1Clip
Uranium 27 Wm-1K-1Clip Uranium Oxide 7.9 Wm-1K-1Clip Vanadium 31 Wm-1K-1Clip
Water 0.591 Wm-1K-1Clip Wool 0.05 Wm-1K-1Clip Yttrium 17 Wm-1K-1Clip
Zinc 111 to 117 Wm-1K-1Clip Zirconium 23 Wm-1K-1Clip<
paste all data into clipboardpaste all data into clipboard

See also: Conductor, Fourier′s Law, Heat Flow Rate, Insulator, R-Value, Thermal Conductivity, Thermal Diffusivity, Thermal Insulation, Thermal Resistance, Wiedemann-Franz Law.

Previous PageView links to and from this pageNext Page

Subjects: Thermodynamics