Shock Wave

The characteristic cone-shaped wave front that is produced whenever an object travels faster than the speed of the waves in the surrounding medium.

Mach wedge
The wave front semi-angle for a wake generated by supersonic motion of a body in a non-dispersive medium.

Kelvin wedge
For waves in the wake of a boat (gravity waves). In this case the wedge semi-angle is independent of the speed of the body.

Spherical adiabatic shock

Rankine-Hugoniot shock relations
These are solutions for a steady, normal shock in the frame moving with the shock front.

νb = Speed of body
νp = Wave speed
θw = Wedge semi-angle
λK = Characteristic wavelength
g = Standard acceleration due to gravity
r = Shock radius
E = Energy release
t = Time
T = Temperature
M = Mach number
p = Pressure
ν = Velocity
ρ = Density
ρ0 = Density of undisturbed medium
γ = Ratio of specific heats
Note: Subscripts 1 and 2 denote upstream and downstream values respectively.

Attached Shock Wave

An oblique or conical shock wave that appears to be in contact with the leading edge of an airfoil or the nose of a body in a supersonic flow field.

Cascade Shower

A group occurrence of cosmic rays.

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Subjects: Aerodynamics