Material made from natural or man-made fibres.
To make a part, sometimes from several parts.
Any important face of a building, usually the principal front with the main entrance.
To machine a flat surface as in the end of a shaft in the lathe.
Face Angle
The plane angle formed by adjacent edges of a polygonal angle in space.
Face Centred Cubic
Roughly 20% of the elements crystallize with face centred cubic structures.
Face Milling
Milling a large flat surface with a milling cutter that operates in a plane that is at right angles to its axis.
Face of Weld
The exposed surface of the weld.
A large circular plate with slots and holes for mounting the workpiece to be machined. It is attached to the headstock of a lathe.
Facilitated Diffusion
Diffusion of a molecule across a biological membrane via a protein transporter down a concentration gradient.
The process of making a flat or smooth surface on the end of a piece of material.
Facing Sand
The sand used to surround the pattern that produces the surface in contact with the molten metal.
Numbers or other things that get multiplied.
Factor Theorem
The factor theorem states that a polynomial f(x) has a factor (x-k) if and only if f(k) = 0.
A polynomial has been factored or is in factored form, when it is written as a product of lower degree polynomials.
Definition of factorial.
Bright granular structures on the surface of the Sun that are slightly hotter than the surrounding photosphere.
Facultative Anaerobe
An organism that can live in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions.
On the Fahrenheit scale 0°C = 32°F and 100°C = 212°F
Fahrenheit Gabriel Daniel
German-born physicist who invented the mercury thermometer and devised the Fahrenheit temperature scale.
Fail Safe System
A system used to minimize risk in case of a malfunction.
The event, or inoperable state, in which any item or part of an item does not, or would not, perform as previously specified.
Failure Mode
The way in which a component fails to operate or perform a function.
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
A procedure by which each potential failure mode of a system is analyzed to determine the effects on the system and classify each potential failure mode according to its severity.
Faint Young Sun Paradox
Calculations suggest that at about the time of the formation of Earth, the Sun was roughly two-thirds the brightness that it is now. However, there is no geological evidence.
Name given to the impure spirit which comes over first and last in distillation.
Fallopian Tube
A tube in female mammals which carries the egg cell from the ovary to the uterus.
Famous Scientists & Engineers
Lists all the Famous Scientists & Engineers in the Encyclopaedia
Famous Scientists & Engineers Books
Lists all Famous Scientists & Engineers Books in the Encyclopaedia
Famous Scientists & Engineers Weblinks
Lists all Famous Scientists & Engineers Weblinks in the Encyclopaedia
Fan Coil Unit
A small terminal unit that is often composed of only a blower and a heating and/or cooling coil, as is often used in hotels, condominiums, or apartments
Fan Design
One of the most important considerations in fan design is that the fan must impart a uniform velocity over it′s entire area.
Fan Noise
For small fans such as those used on electric motors the noise generated by their centrifugal cooling fans can be reduced by reducing the fan rotational speed; noise has been shown to increase at a rate of 53 to 64 dB/decade increase of speed.
There are several simple relationships between fan capacity, pressure, speed, and power, which are referred to as the fan laws.
Far Field
The distribution of sound energy at a very much greater distance from a sources than the linear dimensions of the source and in which the sound waves can be considered to be plane waves.
The SI unit of capacitance.
Quantity of electrical charge associated with one mole of chemical charge equal to 96485.3C
Faraday Cage
An earthed metallic wire or gauze screen enclosing electrical equipment to shield it from the influence of external electric fields.
Faraday Constant
F = 9.648456x104 Cmol-1
Faraday Effect
The generation of a voltage by a coil when the coil is subjected to a changing magnetic field.
Faraday, Michael
English chemist and physicist who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
Faraday Rotation
The rotation of the plane of polarization of electromagnetic energy when it passes a substance influenced by a magnetic field that has a component in the direction of propagation.
Faraday Screen
An earthed wire screen placed in an equipment so as to prevent electrostatic but not electromagnetic coupling between components.
Faraday′s Laws of Electrolysis
Fundamental laws of electrochemistry discovered by Faraday.
Faradays Laws of Electromagnetic Induction
Basic laws of electromagnetism relating to the operating principles of transformers, inductors, and many types of electrical motors and generators.
Faradic Current
The current that is flowing through an electrochemical cell and is causing, or caused by, chemical reactions occurring at the electrode surfaces.
Far-End Crosstalk
A common telephony impairment created by physical twisted wire pairs sharing a bundle.
Farey Sequence
The sequence obtained by arranging in numerical order all the proper fractions having denominators not greater than a given integer.
Hyperopia. Images of distant objects are formed beyond the retina.
Fast Fourier Transform
An algorithm, or digital calculation routine, that efficiently calculates the discrete Fourier transform from the sampled time waveform.
A solid substance that is used by animals as a store of food energy.
Fata Morgana
A complex mirage display that involves multiple images.
An old unit of length more normally used to measure the depth of water.
An important mode of failure of engineering components subjected to dynamic stresses.
Fatigue Analysis
The anlysis of a particular design to understand how durable it will be over it′s lifetime.
Fatigue Chunks
Thick three-dimensional particles exceeding 50 microns indicating severe wear.
Fatigue Corrosion
The process in which a metal fractures prematurely under conditions of simultaneous corrosion and repeated cyclic loading at lower stress levels or fewer cycles than would be required in the absence of the corrosive environment.
Fatigue Failure
Failure occurs after a period of time even in cases of low stress, the component appears to get tired.
Fatigue Life
Number of cycles of fluctuating stress and strain of a specified nature that a material will sustain before failure occurs.
Fatigue Limit
In fatigue testing, the number of cycles which may be withstood without failure at a particular level of stress.
Fatigue Notch Factor
Ratio of fatigue strength of a specimen with no stress concentration to fatigue strength of a specimen with a notch or other stress raisers.
Fatigue Ratio
Ratio of fatigue strength or fatigue limit to tensile strength.
Fatigue Resistance
The ability of a material to withstand repeated and varying loads.
Fatigue Strength
Magnitude of fluctuating stress required to cause failure in a fatigue test specimen after a specified number of cycles of loading.
Fatigue Strength Reduction Factor
An alternate term for fatigue notch factor.
Fatigue Test
A method for determining the behaviour of materials under fluctuating loads.
Fatty Acid
Carboxylic acids with long hydrocarbon side chains.
Fault Tree Analysis
This identifies each undesired event and determines all the ways in which it could occur.
Faying Surface
That surface of a member that is in contact with another member to which it is joined.