Cl

Cl
Chlorine is a greenish yellow gas and second in the halogen group.
Cl10Mo2
Chemical formula for Molybdenum V Chloride.
CL
Abbreviation for lift coefficient, a dimensionless value that allows the comparison of lift incurred by different sized and different shaped bodies.
Clack Valve
A non-return valve where the feedwater enters the boiler drum.
Cladding
An outer layer.
Clamp
A fastening device which secures something within its jaws without constant human pressure.
Clamper
A circuit in which either the upper or lower extremity of a waveform is fixed at a desired value.
Clamping Force
The compressive force which a fastener exerts on the joint.
Clapboard
Thin, narrow boards of tapering cross-section applied horizontally as siding on wood-frame houses.
Clapper
Clapper The hinged closure element of a swing check valve.
Clarity
In concert hall acoustics, the ratio, expressed in decibels, of the energy in the first 80 milliseconds of an impulse sound arriving at a listener's position divided by the energy in the sound after 80 milliseconds.
Clark Cell
A voltaic cell that is used as a reference emf.
Clark Electrode
An amperometric sensor assembly used for the measurement of dissolved oxygen concentration in water or aqueous solutions.
Class A Amplifier Operation
The type of operation in which the amplifier is biased so that variations in input signal polarities occur within the limits of cutoff and saturation.
Class AB Amplifier Operation
The type of operation in which the amplifier is biased so that collector current is cut off for a portion of the alternation of the input signal.
Class B Amplifier Operation
The type of operation in which the amplifier is biased so that collector current is cut off for one-half of the input signal.
Class Boundary
A point that is the left endpoint of one class interval, and the right endpoint of another class interval.
Class C Amplifier Operation
The type of operation in which the amplifier is biased so that collector current is cut off for more than one-half of the input signal.
Class D Amplifier Operation
A switching amplifier or PWM amplifier, the switches are either fully on or fully off, significantly reducing the power losses in the output devices.
Class Interval
The non-overlapping intervals of a histogram.
Class of Fit
It is important that mechanical parts with tolerances that allow for certain types of operation of the two parts. There are a number of systems that classify the dimensional tolerances between parts for different applications.
Classical Electron Radius
A classical distribution of charge totalling the electron′s charge has electrostatic potential energy equivalent to the electron′s rest mass if it were confined to a volume of this radius.
Classical Mechanics
Lists all Classical Mechanics topics in the Encyclopaedia
Classical Mechanics Books
Lists all Classical Mechanics Books in the Encyclopaedia
Classical Mechanics Calculations
Lists all Classical Mechanics Calculations in the Encyclopaedia
Classical Mechanics Conversions
Lists all Classical Mechanics Conversions in the Encyclopaedia
Classical Mechanics Weblinks
Lists all Classical Mechanics Weblinks in the Encyclopaedia
Classical Physics
Physics prior to the introduction of the quantum principle. Classical physics incorporates Newtonian mechanics, views energy as a continuum, and is strictly causal.
Classical Revival
The Italian Renaissance or neoclassical movements in England and the United States in the nineteenth century that looked to the traditions of Greek and Roman antiquity.
Classicism
A tradition of Greek and Roman antiquity, distinguished by the qualities of simplicity, harmony, and balance.
Clathrin
A protein that plays a major role in the formation of coated vesicles.
Clausius, Rudolph Julius Emmanuel
German mathematical physicist; restated the second law of thermodynamics; coined the term "entropy".
Clausius statement
No process is possible whose sole result is the transfer of heat from a colder to a hotter body.
Clausius-Clapeyron Equation
Predicts the temperature dependence of vapour pressures of pure liquids or solids.
Claw Hammer
A hammer with a forked end on the head which is used for removing nails.
Clay
Finely suspended earth mineral sometimes found as an impurity in water.
Clay Filtration
A refining process using fuller′s earth, bauxite or other mineral to absorb minute solids from lubricating oil, as well as remove traces of water, acids, and polar compounds.
Clean Air Act
Signed into law in 1963, then amended in 1970, and again in 1990. Includes emissions standard for mobile and stationary sources. Enforced by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Clean Diesel
An evolving definition of diesel fuel with lower emission specifications.
Clearance
The distance or angle by which one object or surface clears another.
Clearance Bearing
A journal bearing in which the radius of the bearing surface is greater than the radius of the journal surface.
Clearance Fit
A fit that always enables clearance between the hole and shaft of a coupling.
Clearance Volume
The volume of air or liquid remaining in the cylinder of an air compressor or a pump when the piston is nearest to the cylinder head.
Cleavage
Transcrystalline fracture along specific crystallographic planes.
Clerestory
Part of an interior rising above adjacent rooftops, permitting the passage of light.
Clerk-Maxwell, James
Clerk-Maxwell′s greatest work was his initial contribution to electromagnetic radiation.
Cleveloc Nut
A locking nut where the collar of the nut is elliptical in cross section and it is this that provides the flexible locking element.
Click
When the duration of a sound is less than a time threshold required for pitch recognition, the sound is heard as a click rather than a tone.
Climate Chamber
A test facility that can recreate different climatic conditions, often extreme conditions that allow a component, assembly or complete system to be tested to ensure it will perform correctly.
Climate Change
The average global temperature is rising sharply. Humans are contributing to the greenhouse effect by emitting greenhouse gases that trap energy and warm the atmosphere.
Climate Variability
Variations in the mean state and other statistics of the climate on all temporal and spatial scales beyond that of individual weather events.
Climb Milling
A method of milling in which the work table moves in the same direction as the direction of rotation of the milling centre.
Climbing Drum Peel Test
Method for determining peel resistance of adhesive bond between a relatively flexible and a rigid material.
Clinker
Coagulated slag or metal impurities that melt from the coal as it becomes coke.
Clip on Hinge
Concealed hinge where the two parts of the hinge are attached by snapping them together.
Clipper Circuit
A circuit that blocks or removes the portion of a voltage waveform above some threshold voltage.
Clipping
Refers to a type of distortion that occurs when an amplifier is driven into an overload condition.
clo
A unit of thermal insulation used for clothing.
Clock
A device that generates periodic, accurately spaced signals used for timing applications.
Clogging
The restriction of a flow path due to the accumulation of material along the flow path boundaries.
Cloister
In religious institutions, a courtyard with covered walks.
Clone
Two or more organisms that have the same genes.
Cloning
The production of large numbers of identical DNA molecules or cells (or organisms) from a single ancestral DNA molecule, nucleus or cell.
Close Coupled Catalyst
A catalyst that is positioned close to the exhaust manifold to reduce the amount of heat lost from the exhaust gases before they reach the catalyst.
Closed Circuit Television Lens
A family of compound lenses which offer exceptionally high resolution, short focal length and color imaging at fast lens apertures, such as required in the television industry.
Closed Circuit Wind Tunnel
The outlet is connected to the inlet so that the air circulates around the tunnel.
Closed Interval
An interval that includes it′s endpoints.
Closed Loop
A system in which the output is used to control the input.
Closed Shell
A shell that contains the maximum number of electrons permitted by the exclusion principle.
Closed System
A system that exchanges neither matter nor energy with the surroundings.
Closed-Circuit Voltage
The voltage of a battery when it is discharging ie under load.
Closed-Loop Fuel Control
A mode where input air/fuel ratio to an engine is controlled by using an exhaust oxygen sensor as the input reference.
Closing Time
The amount of time from the initiation of the closing operation and the instant when metallic continuity is established in all phases.
Cloud Bank
A well-defined cloud mass that can be observed at a distance.
Cloud Cover
The amount of cloud covering the sky, measured in 1/8th.
Cloud Enhancement
The increase in solar intensity caused by reflected irradiance from nearby clouds.
Cloud Point
The temperature at which waxy crystals in an oil or fuel form a cloudy appearance.
Cloudburst
A sudden, heavy rainfall of a showery nature.
Clouds
A visible collection of minute particle matter, such as water droplets or ice crystals, in the free air.
Club Hammer
A hammer with a short handle but a large, heavy head.
Clutch
Coupling that connects or disconnects driving and driven parts of a driving mechanism.
Clutter
Confusing, unwanted echoes that interfere with the observation of desired signals on a radar indicator.