Ca

Ca
Calcium is one of the most abundant metal elements on Earth (41000 ppm).
CAA
Abbreviation of Civil Aviation Authority.
CAA
Abbreviation of Clean Air Act.
Cable
Either a stranded conductor or a combination of conductors insulated from one another.
Cable Harness
A group of wires or ribbons of wiring used to interconnect electronic systems and subsystems.
Cable Length
Originally the length of a ship′s anchor cable, 120 fathoms.
Cable-Stayed Bridge
A bridge in which the roadway deck is suspended from cables anchored to one or more towers.
CaC2
Chemical formula for Calcium Carbide.
Cache
Static random access memory containing recently used information.
Caching
A process in which frequently accessed data is kept on hand, rather than constantly being from the place where it is stored.
CaCl2
Chemical formula for Calcium Chloride
CaCO3
Chemical formula for Calcium Carbonate.
CAD
Abbreviation of Computer Aided Design.
Cadmium
A white metallic element.
Cadmium Oxide
Commonly used in glasses, plastics, ceramics and porcelain enamels as a coloring agent for reds, oranges, and yellows.

Cadmium Sulphate

CdSO4

Colourless, odourless crystals that are freely soluble.

Cadmium Sulphide

CdS

Found as the mineral greenockite, it is used together with selenium to produce strong reds and yellows.

Cadmium Telluride

CdTe

A polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic material.

CAE
Abbreviation of Computer Aided Engineering.
Caesium
A soft metal which is often liquid at room temperature due to its relatively low melting point (28.5°C).
Caesium Bromide

CsBr

White crystalline solid.

Caesium Chloride

CsCl

White crystalline solid.

Caesium Fluoride

CsF

White crystalline solid.

Caesium Hydride

CsH

White crystalline solid.

Caesium Iodide

CsI

White crystalline solid.

Caesium Oxide

Cs2O

Yellow to orange crystalline solid.

Caesium Peroxide

Cs2O2

Yellow crystalline solid.

Caesium Sulphide

Cs2S

White to pale yellow crystalline solid.

Caesium Superoxide

CsO2

Yellow to orange crystalline solid.

CAFE
Corporate Average Fuel Economy
Caffeine
A substance found in tea, coffee, and cola that acts as a stimulant.
Cage
The bearing cage is a device used to seperate the rolling elements of a bearing.
Cage Pocket
A section of a bearing cage that retains the ball.
Cahen Constant
Defined as an infinite series of unit fractions, with alternating signs.
Caisson
A watertight, dry chamber in which people can work underwater.
cal
An abbreviation of calorie, a unit of energy in the British system of units.
Calamine Brass
Brass produced by a particular alloying technique using calamine (a zinc ore) rather than metallic zinc.

Calcination
A high-temperature reaction whereby one solid material dissociates to form a gas and another solid.
Calcium
One of the most abundant metal elements on Earth (41000 ppm).
Calcium Carbide

CaC2

Usually formed by fusing lime and hard coal in a furnace.

Calcium Carbonate

CaCO3

A white insoluble solid, occuring naturally as chalk, limestone, marble and calcite.

Calcium Chloride

CaCl2

Absorbs moisture from the atmosphere and is used for drying gases.

Calcium Hypochlorite

CaCl(OCl)

More commonly known as bleaching powder.

Calcium Magnesium Acetate
Used as an alternative to road salt.

Calcium Oxide

CaO

Also know as Quicklime.

Calcium Sulphate

CaSO4

Used to make plaster of paris and plaster.

Calculated Peak
Term used to describe the spectral overall RMS level multiplied by the square root of two.
Calculations
Lists all the Calculations in the Encyclopaedia
Calculator
A machine for performing arithemtical calculations.
Caldera
A large volcanic collapse depression, commonly circular or elliptical when seen from above.
Calendar Year
1 calendar year = 31.536x106 seconds
Caliban Puzzle
A logic puzzle in which one is asked to infer one or more facts from a set of given facts.
Calibrate
To determine the indication or output of a measuring device with respect to that of a standard.
Calibration
When recording or analysing any signal it is necessary to calibrate the system with a known signal.
California Air Resources Board
A state regulatory agency charged with regulating the air quality in California.
Californium
A man-made element with an atomic number of 98.
Caliper
A measuring instrument used to measure the distance between two points or the inside or outside dimensions of an object.
Calomel
Another name for Mercury I Chloride.
Calomel Electrode
A commonly used reference electrode.
Caloric
A postulated elastic fluid associated with heat.
Calorie
A unit of energy in the British system of units. Still used to define the amount of energy amount of energy contained in foods.
Calorie per Second
Unit of power.
Calorific Value
The ratio of energy to volume measured in joules per cubic metre.
Calorimeter
An insulated vessel for measuring the amount of heat absorbed or released by a chemical or physical change.
Calorimetry
The science of measuring heat flow.
Calutron
A device that separates isotopes by ionizing the sample.
Calvin Cycle
The cyclic pathway used by plants to fix carbon dioxide and produce triose phosphates.
Cam
A device for converting regular rotary motion to irregular rotary or reciprocating motion.
Cam Follower
That part of the push rod that is in contact with the cam.
Camber
Generally a curve.
Camber Angle
Wheel angle relative to ground in front/rear view.
Camber Change
The change between the design value and the actual camber at any suspension position.
Camber Gain
The rate of change in camber as the wheel travels from jounce to rebound.
Camber Thrust
If a tyre is cambered left, it will produce a lateral force towards the left known as camber thrust, even when simply rolling in a straight line.
Cambrian
The geological period from 570 million to 510 million years ago.
Camera
An instrument for taking photographs consisting of a lightproof box, shutter, adjustable aperture and a lens through which an image is focussed on a light sensitive film or sensor.
Camera Lens
An arrangement of one or more pieces of optical glass designed to collect and focus rays of light to form a sharp image on the film.
Camera Obscura
A room with a small hole in one wall used by artists to produce images.
Campanile
A bell tower usually not actually attached to a church; also, lofty towers that form parts of buildings.
Campbell Diagram
A mathematically constructed diagram used to check for coincidence of vibration sources with natural resonances.
Camshaft
The shaft which carries the various cams required for the operation of inlet, exhaust, fuel, and starting-air valves.
Canal
An artificial channel of water used by boats and originally designed for the transportation of goods.
Canard
A horizontal pitch control surface on an aircraft that is forward of the main wing.
CANbus
A protocol developed by automobile manufacturers enabling a vehicle′s on-board computer diagnostic system to output standardized data streams.
Cancer
A disease caused by mutations in the cells of an organism.
Candela
The SI unit of luminous intensity.
Candidate Oil
An oil that is intended to have the performance characteristics necessary to satisfy a specification and is to be tested against that specification.
Canonical Form
In a mathematical context this term is taken to mean a generic or basic representation.
Canonical Time Unit
For geocentric orbits, the time required by a hypothetical satellite to move one radian in a circular orbit of the earth's equatorial radius.
Cantilever
A horizontal projection, such as a balcony or beam, supported at one end only.
Cantilever Beam
A beam that is held in an encastre at one end whilst the other end is unsupported.
CaO
Chemical formula for Calcium Oxide.
Cap Nut
A nut that is closed at the threaded end often with a dome.
Capability Indices
Indices computed in the process capability procedure to measure how well a sample of data conforms to process specifications.
Capacitance
The capacitance is defined as the total electric charge on a body divided by its potential.
Capacitative Coupling
The transfer of energy within an electrical network by means of the capacitance between circuit nodes. This coupling can be an intentional or accidental effect.
Capacitive Current
The current flowing through an electrochemical cell that is charging/discharging the electrical double layer capacitance.
Capacitive Reactance
The opposition, expressed in ohms, offered to the flow of an alternating current by capacitance.
Capacitor
An electrical component that passes alternating currents but blocks direct currents.
Capacitor Microphone
Microphone whose operation depends on variations in capacitance caused by varying air pressure on the movable plate of a capacitor.
Capacitor Start Motor
A type of single-phase, ac induction motor in which a starting winding and a capacitor are placed in series to start the motor.
Capacity
The maximum amount that can be obtained.
Caphead Bolt
Fastened with a hexagonal Allen key.
Capillary
A blood vessel with very thin walls.
Capillary Action
A phenomenon whereby the narrower the tube the higher the liquid will climb above it's normal bulk level in the container.
Capsid
The protein coat of a virus particle.
Captive
Something that is permanently located in the desired position.
Captive Nut
A nut which fits into a cage and is welded in place.
Car
A more common name for an automobile.
Carat Gold
Measure of parts of gold per 24 parts of an alloy and equal to 41.667 milligrams of gold per gram of alloy.
Carat Precious Stones
A standard measure of weight for precious stones.
Carbanion
A negatively charged carbon atom.
Carbide
The old abbreviated name for calcium carbide.
Carbide Tools
For cutting tools, tungsten carbide, titanium carbide, tantalum carbide or a combination of these in a cobalt or nickel matrix provides hardness, wear resistance and heat resistance.
Carbocation
An ion with a positively charged carbon atom.
Carbohydrate
A class of organic compounds including sugars and starches.
Carbolic Acid
Also known as phenol, it is used as a strong disinfectant.
Carbon
Occurs naturally in two allotropic forms, namely graphite and diamond.
Carbon Bisulphide
Alternative name for Carbon Disulphide.
Carbon Black
A form of paracrystalline carbon that has a high surface-area-to-volume ratio, albeit lower than that of activated carbon. Produced by the incomplete combustion of heavy petroleum products.

Carbon Capture System
The capture of carbon dioxide and removal from the atmosphere. This may be achieved by capturing the CO2 as it is exhausted from the power station or once it is in the atmosphere. In the exhaust the carbon dioxide will be at higher concentration and so easier to extract.
Carbon Cycle
The term used to describe the flow of carbon in various forms through the atmosphere, ocean, terrestrial biosphere, and lithosphere.
Carbon Deposit
Carbon is routinely left as a black deposit on engine parts, such as pistons, rings, and valves, by the combustion of fuel.
Carbon Dioxide
A heavy, colourless gas that is the fourth most abundant constituent of dry air, comprising 0.033% of the total.
Carbon Dioxide Emissions
While CO2 levels in the Earth′s atmosphere have fluctuated over many eons, recent investigations have revealed a steady and rapid rate of increase in atmospheric CO2 during the past 100 years as a result of mankind′s industrialization.
Carbon Dioxide Laser
A widely used laser in which the primary lasing medium is carbon dioxide gas.
Carbon Disulphide
Also known as Carbon Bisulphide used as a solvent in the vulcanization of rubber.
Carbon Fibre
Material that has small fibres of carbon added for strength.
Carbon Fixation Reactions
The light-independent enzymatic reactions involved in the synthesis of glucose from CO2, ATP, and NADPH.
Carbon Hydride Nitride
Alternative name for Hydrogen Cyanide.
Carbon Microphone
Microphone whose operation depends on pressure variation in carbon granules causing a change in resistance.
Carbon Monoxide
A colourless gas that is very poisonous as it combines with the haemoglobin in blood forming a stable compound so reducing the ability to carry oxygen.
Carbon Nanotubes
Allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure.
Carbon Residue
The carbon remaining after evaporating off the volatile portion of a fuel or lubricating oil by heating it in the absence of air under controlled test conditions.
Carbon Sequestration
The absorption and storage of CO2 from the atmosphere.
Carbon Tetrachloride
Colourless liquid with a sweet smell used as a solvent.
Carbon Tetrafluoride
Alternative name for Tetrafluoromethane.
Carbon Zinc Battery
A battery packaged in a zinc can that serves as both a container and negative terminal. It was developed from the wet Leclanché cell.
Carbonaceous Aerosol
Aerosol consisting predominantly of organic substances and various forms of black carbon.
Carbonado
Carbon that has metamorphosed into its diamond phase but remains black.
Carbonate
An inorganic ion with a charge of -2, containing carbon bound directly to three oxygens in a in a flat triangular arrangement.
Carbonate Water Hardness
Water hardness due to the presence of calcium and magnesium carbonates and bicarbonates.
Carbon-Carbon
A material that consists of 100-percent carbon fibres in a carbon matrix. The material does not contain any binders or epoxy and is coated with a ceramic material.

Carbonic Acid

H2CO3

A weak acid formed by carbon dioxide dissolved in water.

Carbonic Oxide
Old name for Carbon Monoxide.
Carboniferous
The geological period from 362.5 million to 290 million years ago.
Carbonitriding
Introducing carbon and nitrogen into a solid ferrous alloy by holding above the temperature at which austenite begins to form during heating.
Carbonizing Flame
An oxyacetylene flame in which there is an excess of acetylene.
Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen Cycle
In stars more massive than the sun this cycle is the primary process which converts hydrogen into helium.
Carbonyl
A divalent group consisting of a carbon atom with a double-bond to oxygen.
Carborundum
More commonly known as Silicon Carbide, used extensively as a grinding compound and in abrasive wheels.
Carboxamide

NH2CONH2

More commonly known as Urea, the main nitrogenous excretion of most animals. It has the distinction of being the first organic compound to have been made in a laboratory (1828). Urea is used in the manufacture of ammonia and carbon dioxide.

Carboxylic Acid
A compound with molecules containing a carboxylic acid group -COOH.
Carboy
A very large bottle.
Carburetor
A device through which air and fuel are atomized and drawn into the engine.
Carburetor Choke
A temporary restriction in a carburetor throat that reduces the flow of air and enriches the fuel-air mixture to aid in starting the engine.
Carburetted Hydrogen
Old name for Methane.
Carburizing
Introducing carbon into a solid ferrous alloy.
Carcinogens
Substances known to cause cancer.
Cardan Joint
A flexible coupling between the input shaft and the output shaft allow power to be transmitted between the shafts at an angle.
Cardboard
A stiff form of paper most commonly used to manufacture packaging.
Cardinal Number
A number that indicates the quantity but not the order of things.
Cardinal Points
North, South, East and West are known as the Cardinal Points.
Cardioid
The curve described by a point on a circle of radius r as it rolls on the outside of another circle of radius r.
Cardiovascular
Pertaining to the heart and the blood vessels.
Cardoso, Edgar
Bridge engineer.
Carnivore
An animal that eats only meat.
Carnot Cycle
An idealized reversible thermodynamic cycle.
Carnot Engine
An idealized reversible heat engine working in a Carnot cycle.
Carnot Limit
A theoretical limit on the efficiency of an engine based on the flow of heat between two reservoirs.
Carnot's theorems
No engine can be more efficient than a reversible engine working between the same limits of temperature. All reversible engines working between the same two limits of temperature have the same efficiency.
Carotene
Carotene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon pigment found in many plants. Carotene is the basic building block of vitamin A.

Carotenoids
Lipid-soluble photosynthetic pigments made up of isoprene units.
Carothers, Wallace Hume
Carried out the key early experiments that led to commercial polyesters, nylons, and neoprene while working for the DuPont corporation.
Carpenters Axe
A tool with a flat metal blade fixed to a wooden handle used to hew and cut wood into rough shape.
Carpenters Brace
A hand tool used to drill holes, usually in wood.
Carriage Bolt
A small rounded head with a square section under the head designed to stop the bolt rotating.
Carrier
A deliberate electromagnetic emission that carries intelligence through a modulation of one or more of its characteristics.
Carrier Frequency
The frequency of an unmodulated transmitter output.
Carrier Particle
A fundamental boson associated with quantum excitations of the force field corresponding to some interaction.
Carrier Suppression
The degree to which the carrier signal is reduced in amplitude in a modulator or mixer.
Carrier, Willis
American engineer and inventor, and is known as the man who invented modern air conditioning.
Carrington Longitude
A system of fixed longitudes rotating with the sun.
Cartesian Coordinates
Coordinates where the position of a point is described by the distance it is from 2 lines in 2 dimensional space or from 3 planes in 3 dimensional space.
Cartesian Plane
A coordinate plane.
Cartridge Brass
A brass made with 75.5% copper and 24.5% zinc.
Cartridge Fuse
A low voltage fuse consisting of a current-responsive element inside of a fuse tube with connection terminals on both ends.
Casagrande, Arthur
Geotechnical Engineer, major contributor of the developments of Soil Mechanics.
Cascade Shower
A group occurrence of cosmic rays.
Cascading Style Sheets
Set of HTML commands used to control the style of web pages - commonly known by abbreviation CSS.
Cascamite
A waterproof resin based glue.
Case
In a ferrous alloy, the outer portion that has been made harder than the inner portion.
Case Based Reasoning
Solves a current problem by retrieving the solution to previous similar problems and altering those solutions to meet the current needs.
Case Hardening
Hardening a ferrous alloy so that the outer portion, or case, is made substantially harder than the inner portion, or core.
Casement Window
A window in which the frame is built in such a way that the sash can open out like a door when installed in a window unit.
Casimir Effect
A quantum mechanical effect, where two very large plates placed close to each other will experience an attractive force, in the absence of other forces.
CaSO4
Chemical formula for Calcium Sulphate.
Cassegrain Antenna
An antenna used to achieve a highly directive, pencil beam emission with a plane wave front.
Cassegrain Telescope
Two-mirror reflecting telescope.
Cassiterite
Dark coloured mineral that is an important ore of Tin.
Cast Alloys
Alloys cast from the molten state.
Cast Iron
An alloy of iron and carbon (2.5%). Distinguished from steel by large amounts of graphite.
Cast Iron BS1452 Grade 220
A continuous cast iron bar, it has a fine grain structure combined with the fine graphite flake size and dense homogeneous structure.

Cast Iron BS1452 Grade 250
Good combination of wear resistance and strength, reasonable machinability and excellent surface finishes.

Cast Iron BS1452 Grade 260
A fine grain structure, combined with the fine graphite flake size and dense homogeneous structure. Good wearing characteristics and when components require a combination of strength and wear resistance superior to those of other softer cast iron grades.

Cast Iron Gears
All types of cast iron, from gray to ductile, reduce noise because of the inherent damping properties of the metal.
Caster Angle
The angle between upper and lower ball joints in side view, about which the wheel turns.
Caster Change
This is the change between design and any suspension position.
Caster Gain
The change in caster as the wheel moves up and down from full jounce to full rebound.
Caster Offset
The side view distance between the point where the steering axis meets the ground and the centre of the tyre contact patch.
Castigated Nut
A nut with grooves cut entirely across the top face.
Casting
A generic term referring to a process where a fluid material is made to flow into a shaped mold cavity where it solidifies.
Casting Yield
The weight of casting or castings divided by the total weight of metal poured into the mould
Catabolism
The phase of intermediary metabolism concerned with the energy-yielding degradation of nutrient molecules.
Cataclysmic Variable
A binary star system containing a white dwarf that exhibits sudden outbursts of energy.
Catadioptric
An optical system containing both reflective and refractive elements.
Catalans Constant
= 0.915965594177219015
Catalyst
Substance that speeds up a chemical process without actually changing the products of reaction.
Catalyst Loading
This refers to the mass of catalyst per unit area.
Catalyst Poisoning
The process of impurities binding to a catalyst and lowering the catalyst′s ability to facilitate the desired chemical reaction.
Catalytic Converter
An air pollution abatement device that removes pollutants from motor vehicle exhaust, either by oxidizing them into carbon dioxide and water or reducing them to nitrogen.
Catalytic Cracking
The use of a catalyst to break down the molecules of the high boiling temperature fractions of crude oil.
Cataphoresis
Another name for Electrophoresis.
Catcher Grid
In a velocity-modulated tube, a grid on which the spaced electron groups induce a signal.
Catenary
A chain suspended from two points forms this curve.
Cathode
Electrode where electrons are gained (reduction) in redox reactions.
Cathode Bias
The method of biasing a vacuum tube in which the biasing resistor is placed in the common-cathode return circuit, thereby making the cathode more positive with respect to ground.
Cathode Keying
A system in which the cathode circuit is interrupted so that neither grid current nor plate current can flow.
Cathode Modulator
Voltage on the cathode is varied to produce the modulation envelope.
Cathode Ray
An electron emitted from the negative electrode in an evacuated tube.
Cathode Ray Tube
An evacuated tube containing an anode and a cathode that generates cathode rays when operated at a high voltage.
Cathode Sputtering
A process of producing thin film components.
Cathodic Protection
A means of corrosion prevention.
Catholyte
The electrolyte on the cathode side of an electrochemical cell that is divided into compartments.
Cations
Ion with a positive charge.
Cauchy Sequence
A sequence x0, x1, ... of elements of a metric space is said to be a Cauchy sequence if differences |xn+m-xn| are uniformly small in m (i.e. do not depend on m) and tend to 0 as n grows.
Cauchy Window
A weighting that is applied in the time domain to reduce leakage within a Fourier Transform analysis.
Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality
The dot product of two vectors cannot be greater in magnitude than the product of the magnitudes of the vectors.
Cauk
Old name for Barium Sulphate.
Caul Sheet
Plate or sheet the same size and shape used in contact with a composite layup to transmit normal pressure and temperature during cure.
Caulking Gun
A lightweight steel frame with a squeeze grip handle for applying a range of caulks, sealants and fillers that are marketed in tubes.
Causality Principle
The principle that cause must always preceed effect. More formally, if an event A ("the cause") somehow influences an event B ("the effect") which occurs later in time, then event B cannot in turn have an influence on event A.
Cause and Effect Diagram
Also known as Fish Bone Diagram.
Caustic
A substance that causes corrosion.
Caustic Potash
Old fashioned name for Potassium Hydroxide.
Caustic Soda
Alternative name for Sodium Hydroxide.
Cavendish, Henry
English physicist and chemist, discovered hydrogen.
Cavitation
A condition which can occur in liquid handling machinery where a system pressure decrease in the suction line and pump inlet lowers fluid pressure and vaporization occurs.
Cavitation Corrosion
A process involving conjoint corrosion and cavitation.
Cavity Acoustics
The acoustics associated with enclosed volumes.
Cavity Resonator
A space totally enclosed by a metallic conductor and supplied with energy in such a way that it becomes a source of electromagnetic oscillations.
Cavity Wavemeter
An instrument used to measure microwave frequencies.
Cawk
Old name for Barium Sulphate.
Caxton, William
First English printer. Produced nearly 100 publications, including The Canterbury Tales and Troilus and Criseyde by the English poet Goeffrey Chaucer and Confessio Amantis by the English poet John Gower.