Nobel Prize

Awarded annually as per Alfred Nobel′s last will and testament.


Chemistry - Jacobus Henricus Van′t Hoff in recognition of the extraordinary services to the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions.


Chemistry - Frederick Soddy for his contribution to the chemistry of radioactive substances and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes.

Physics - Albert Einstein for his work in quantum physics.


Chemistry - Theodor Svedberg for his work on disperse systems.


Physics - Sir James Chadwick for the discovery of the neutron.


Chemistry - Sir Robert Robinson for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids.


Chemistry - Archer John Porter Martin and Richard Laurence Millington SyngeE for their invention of partition chromatography.


Chemistry - Hermann Staudinger for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry.


Chemistry - Linus Carl Pauling for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances.


Chemistry - Vincent du Vigneaud for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone.


Chemistry - Sir Cyril Norman Hinselwood and Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions.


Chemistry - Lord Alexander R. Todd for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes.


Chemistry - Frederick Sanger for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin.


Chemistry - Jaroslav Heyrovsky for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis.


Chemistry - Willard Frank Libby for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science.

Physics - Donald A. Glaser for the invention of the bubble chamber.


Physics - Robert Hofstadter for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the stucture of the nucleons.
Physics - Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name.


Physics - Lev Davidovich Landau for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium.


Physics - Eugene P. Wigner for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles.
Physics - Maria Goeppert-Mayer and J. Hans D. Jensen for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure.


Physics - Charles H. Townes
Physics - Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov and Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle.


Physics - Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Julian Schwinger and Richard P. Feynman for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles.


Physics - Alfred Kastler for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying hertzian resonances in atoms.


Physics - Hans Albrecht Bethe for his contributions to the theory ofnuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars.


Physics - Luis W. Alvarez for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis.


Physics - Murray Gell-Mann for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions.


Physics - Hannes Alfvén for fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics .
Physics - Louis Néel for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics.


Physics - Dennis Gabor for his invention and development of the holographic method.


Physics - John Bardeen, Leon N. Cooper and J. Robert Schrieffer for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory.


Physics - Leo Esaki and Ivar Giaever for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors.
Physics - Brian D. Josephson for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects.


Physics - Sir Martin Ryle and Antony Hewish for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics.


Physics - Aage Bohr, Ben Mottelson and James Rainwater for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection.


Physics - Burton Richter and Samuel C. C. Ting for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind.


Physics - Philip W. Anderson, Sir Nevill F. Mott and John H. van Vleck for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems.


Physics - Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics
Physics - Arno A. Penzias and Robert W. Wilson for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation.


Physics - Sheldon L. Glashow, Abdus Salam and Steven Weinberg for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including inter alia the prediction of the weak neutral current.


Physics - James W. Cronin and Val L. Fitch for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons.


Physics - Nicolaas Bloembergen and Arthur L. Schawlow for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy.
Physics - Kai M. Siegbahn for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy.


Physics - Kenneth G. Wilson for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions.


Physics - Subramanyan Chandrasekhar for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars.
Physics - William A. Fowler for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe.


Physics - Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction.


Physics - Klaus von Klitzing for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect.


Physics - Ernst Ruska for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope.

Physics - Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope.


Physics - J. Georg Bednorz and K. Alexander Müller for their important breakthrough in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials.


Physics - Leon M. Lederman, Melvin Schwartz and Jack Steinberger for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino.


Physics - Norman F. Ramsey for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks.
Physics - Hans G. Dehmelt and Wolfgang Paul for the development of the ion trap technique.


Physics - Jerome I. Friedman, Henry W. Kendall and Richard E. Taylor for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics.


Physics - Pierre-Gilles de Gennes for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers.


Physics - Georges Charpak for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber.


Physics - Russell A. Hulse and Joseph H. Taylor Jr. for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation.


Physics - Bertram N. Brockhouse for the development of neutron spectroscopy.
Physics - Clifford G. Shull for the development of the neutron diffraction technique.


Chemistry - Paul Crutzen, Mario Molina, and F. Sherwood Rowland for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone.

Physics - Martin L. Perl for the discovery of the tau lepton.
Physics - Frederick Reines for the detection of the neutrino.


Chemistry - Robert F. Curl Jr., Sir Harold W. Kroto, and Richard E. Smalley for their discovery of fullerenes.

Physics - David M. Lee, Douglas D. Osheroff and Robert C. Richardson for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3.


Physics - Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and William D. Phillips for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light.


Chemistry - Walter Kohn for his development of the density-functional theory
Chemistry - John A. Pople for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry.

Physics - Robert B. Laughlin, Horst L. Stormer and Daniel C. Tsui for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations.


Chemistry - Ahmed Zewail for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy.

Physics - Gerardus 'T Hooft and Martinus J. G. Veltman for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics.


Chemistry - Alan J. Heeger, Alan G. Macdiarmid, and Hideki Shirakawa for the discovery and development of conductive polymers.

Physics - Zhores I. Alferov and Herbert Kroemer for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed-electronics and opto-electronics.
Physics - Jack St. Clair Kilby for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit.


Chemistry - William S. Knowles and Ryoji Noyori for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions
Chemistry - K. Barry Sharpless for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions.

Physics - Eric A. Cornell, Wolfgang Ketterle and Carl E. Wieman for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates.


Chemistry - John B. Fenn, and Koichi Tanaka, for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules.
Chemistry - Kurt Wüthrich for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution.

Physics - Raymond Davis Jr., and Masatoshi Koshiba for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos.
Physics - Riccardo Giacconi for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources.


Chemistry - Peter Agre for the discovery of water channels.
Chemistry - Roderick Mackinnon for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels.

Physics - Alexei A. Abrikosov, Vitaly L. Ginzburg and Anthony J. Leggett for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids.

Physiology & Medicine - Paul C. Lauterbur and Sir Peter Mansfield for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging.

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Subjects: Chemistry Medical Physics

Weblinks: The official web site of the Nobel prize.