Nobel Prize

Awarded annually as per Alfred Nobel′s last will and testament.

1901

Chemistry - Jacobus Henricus Van′t Hoff in recognition of the extraordinary services to the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions.


1921

Chemistry - Frederick Soddy for his contribution to the chemistry of radioactive substances and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes.

Physics - Albert Einstein for his work in quantum physics.


1926

Chemistry - Theodor Svedberg for his work on disperse systems.


1935

Physics - Sir James Chadwick for the discovery of the neutron.


1947

Chemistry - Sir Robert Robinson for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids.


1952

Chemistry - Archer John Porter Martin and Richard Laurence Millington SyngeE for their invention of partition chromatography.


1953

Chemistry - Hermann Staudinger for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry.


1954

Chemistry - Linus Carl Pauling for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances.


1955

Chemistry - Vincent du Vigneaud for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone.


1956

Chemistry - Sir Cyril Norman Hinselwood and Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions.


1957

Chemistry - Lord Alexander R. Todd for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes.


1958

Chemistry - Frederick Sanger for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin.


1959

Chemistry - Jaroslav Heyrovsky for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis.


1960

Chemistry - Willard Frank Libby for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science.

Physics - Donald A. Glaser for the invention of the bubble chamber.


1961

Physics - Robert Hofstadter for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the stucture of the nucleons.
and
Physics - Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name.


1962

Physics - Lev Davidovich Landau for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium.


1963

Physics - Eugene P. Wigner for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles.
and
Physics - Maria Goeppert-Mayer and J. Hans D. Jensen for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure.


1964

Physics - Charles H. Townes
and
Physics - Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov and Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle.


1965

Physics - Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Julian Schwinger and Richard P. Feynman for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles.


1966

Physics - Alfred Kastler for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying hertzian resonances in atoms.


1967

Physics - Hans Albrecht Bethe for his contributions to the theory ofnuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars.


1968

Physics - Luis W. Alvarez for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis.


1969

Physics - Murray Gell-Mann for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions.


1970

Physics - Hannes Alfvén for fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics .
and
Physics - Louis Néel for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics.


1971

Physics - Dennis Gabor for his invention and development of the holographic method.


1972

Physics - John Bardeen, Leon N. Cooper and J. Robert Schrieffer for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory.


1973

Physics - Leo Esaki and Ivar Giaever for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors.
and
Physics - Brian D. Josephson for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects.


1974

Physics - Sir Martin Ryle and Antony Hewish for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics.


1975

Physics - Aage Bohr, Ben Mottelson and James Rainwater for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection.


1976

Physics - Burton Richter and Samuel C. C. Ting for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind.


1977

Physics - Philip W. Anderson, Sir Nevill F. Mott and John H. van Vleck for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems.


1978

Physics - Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics
and
Physics - Arno A. Penzias and Robert W. Wilson for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation.


1979

Physics - Sheldon L. Glashow, Abdus Salam and Steven Weinberg for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including inter alia the prediction of the weak neutral current.


1980

Physics - James W. Cronin and Val L. Fitch for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons.


1981

Physics - Nicolaas Bloembergen and Arthur L. Schawlow for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy.
and
Physics - Kai M. Siegbahn for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy.


1982

Physics - Kenneth G. Wilson for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions.


1983

Physics - Subramanyan Chandrasekhar for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars.
and
Physics - William A. Fowler for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe.


1984

Physics - Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction.


1985

Physics - Klaus von Klitzing for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect.


1986

Physics - Ernst Ruska for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope.

Physics - Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope.


1987

Physics - J. Georg Bednorz and K. Alexander Müller for their important breakthrough in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials.


1988

Physics - Leon M. Lederman, Melvin Schwartz and Jack Steinberger for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino.


1989

Physics - Norman F. Ramsey for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks.
and
Physics - Hans G. Dehmelt and Wolfgang Paul for the development of the ion trap technique.


1990

Physics - Jerome I. Friedman, Henry W. Kendall and Richard E. Taylor for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics.


1991

Physics - Pierre-Gilles de Gennes for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers.


1992

Physics - Georges Charpak for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber.


1993

Physics - Russell A. Hulse and Joseph H. Taylor Jr. for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation.


1994

Physics - Bertram N. Brockhouse for the development of neutron spectroscopy.
and
Physics - Clifford G. Shull for the development of the neutron diffraction technique.


1995

Chemistry - Paul Crutzen, Mario Molina, and F. Sherwood Rowland for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone.

Physics - Martin L. Perl for the discovery of the tau lepton.
and
Physics - Frederick Reines for the detection of the neutrino.


1996

Chemistry - Robert F. Curl Jr., Sir Harold W. Kroto, and Richard E. Smalley for their discovery of fullerenes.

Physics - David M. Lee, Douglas D. Osheroff and Robert C. Richardson for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3.


1997

Physics - Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and William D. Phillips for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light.


1998

Chemistry - Walter Kohn for his development of the density-functional theory
and
Chemistry - John A. Pople for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry.

Physics - Robert B. Laughlin, Horst L. Stormer and Daniel C. Tsui for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations.


1999

Chemistry - Ahmed Zewail for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy.

Physics - Gerardus 'T Hooft and Martinus J. G. Veltman for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics.


2000

Chemistry - Alan J. Heeger, Alan G. Macdiarmid, and Hideki Shirakawa for the discovery and development of conductive polymers.

Physics - Zhores I. Alferov and Herbert Kroemer for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed-electronics and opto-electronics.
and
Physics - Jack St. Clair Kilby for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit.


2001

Chemistry - William S. Knowles and Ryoji Noyori for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions
and
Chemistry - K. Barry Sharpless for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions.

Physics - Eric A. Cornell, Wolfgang Ketterle and Carl E. Wieman for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates.


2002

Chemistry - John B. Fenn, and Koichi Tanaka, for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules.
and
Chemistry - Kurt Wüthrich for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution.

Physics - Raymond Davis Jr., and Masatoshi Koshiba for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos.
and
Physics - Riccardo Giacconi for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources.


2003

Chemistry - Peter Agre for the discovery of water channels.
and
Chemistry - Roderick Mackinnon for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels.

Physics - Alexei A. Abrikosov, Vitaly L. Ginzburg and Anthony J. Leggett for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids.

Physiology & Medicine - Paul C. Lauterbur and Sir Peter Mansfield for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging.


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Subjects: Chemistry Medical Physics


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