Medical Topics

Acclimatization
The adjustments of a human body or other organism to a new environment.
Acetaminophen

C8H9NO2

More commonly known as Paracetamol, a widely used over-the-counter analgesic.

Acetyl-Salicyclic Acid

CH3COOC6H4COOH

Commonly known as Aspirin, a white solid. Used in medicine as an antipyretic and analgesic.

Acidosis
A condition in which blood pH decreases, either for metabolic or respiratory reasons.
Acology
The science of remedies.
Acoustic Trauma
Damage to the hearing mechanism caused by a sudden burst of intense noise, or by a blast.
Alkalosis
A metabolic condition in which blood pH decreases, usually the result of a metabolic condition or vomiting.
Altitude Acclimatization
Physiological adaptation to reduced atmospheric and oxygen pressure.
Altitude Sickness
Sickness brought on by exposure to reduced oxygen tension and barometric pressure.
Ames Test
A simple bacterial test for carcinogens.
Anodyne
A medicine or drug which alleviates pain.
Anomia
A neurological disorder which causes a marked inability to name otherwise familiar stimuli.
Anoxia
A complete lack of oxygen available for physiological use within the body.
Antibiotic
An organic compound secreted by many species of microorganisms and fungi which is toxic to other species.
Apgar Scale
Standardized scale that is used to determine the physical status of an infant at birth.
Apgar, Virginia
Professor of anesthesiology at the New York Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, devised the Apgar Scale in 1953.
Apical Turn
The final turn in the spiral of the cochlea furthest from the oval and round windows.
Aspirin
Common name for Acetyl-Salicyclic Acid.
Audiogram
Graph of hearing threshold level as a function of frequency.
Audiometer
An instrument for measuring hearing acuity.
Auditory Anomia
A neurological disorder which causes a marked inability to name otherwise familiar acoustic stimuli such as a door bell or motor vehicle.
Auditory Cortex
Region of the cortex devoted to the analysis of sound information.
Auditory Nerve
Bundle of nerve fibers that carry information from the cochlea to the higher stages of the auditory system.
Basilar Membrane
A membrane inside the cochlea that vibrates in response to sound, exciting the hair cells.
BID
This is an abbreviation for the latin phrase bis in die which translates to "twice a day".
Biotin
Commonly known as vitamin H.
Blood
A liquid that circulates inside the bodies of animals.
BMI
Abbreviation of Body Mass Index.
Body Mass Index
A measure of fatness used in medicine and health.
Cancer
A disease caused by mutations in the cells of an organism.
Carcinogens
Substances known to cause cancer.
CH3COOC6H4COOH
Chemical formula for Acetyl-Salicyclic Acid.
Cochlea
A snail shaped mechanism in the inner ear that contain hair cells of basilar membrane that vibrate to aid in frequency recognition.
Computer Assisted Drug Design
Using computational chemistry to discover, enhance, or study drugs and related biologically active molecules.
Conductive Hearing Loss
Hearing loss due to the impairment of sound transmission before it reaches the inner ear.
Cyanocobolamin
Commonly known as vitamin B12.
Diaphoretic
Any substance which induces perspiration when administered to a patient.
diebus alternis
Latin for every other day.
diebus tertius
Latin for every third day.
Dose
A measure of the energy deposited within a given mass of a patient.
Dose Equivalent
Parameter used to express the risk of the deleterious effects of ionization radiation upon living organisms.
Dose Rate
A measure of the dose delivered per unit time.
Drug
A biologically active compound or mixture used to cure, prevent, or detect disease, to control biological processes, or to alter mental state.
Ear
The human ear, as a sound receiver, has to operate under a wide range of conditions.
Eardrum
The tympanic membrane located at the end of the ear canal that is attached to the ossicles of the middle ear.
Earmuff
Hearing protector worn over the pinna of an ear.
Earplug
Hearing protector that is inserted into the ear canal.
Enkephalin
Molecules produced naturally by the central nervous system to numb pain.
Epsom Salts
Common name for Magnesium Sulphate.
Excitotoxin
An excitotoxin is a toxic molecule that stimulates nerve cells so much that they are damaged or killed.
Explosive Decompression
A very rapid reduction of air pressure inside a cabin, coming to a new static condition of balance with the external pressure.
External Meatus
The ear canal terminated by the eardrum.
Genetic Engineering
A man-made method of altering the genes to change the characteristics of an organism.
Grain
An individual crystal in a poly-crystalline metal or alloy.
Hair Cell
Sensory cells in the cochlea which transform the mechanical energy of sound into nerve impulses.
Hearing
The subjective human response to sound.
Hearing Damage
A person exposed to high noise levels can suffer hearing damage. The damage may be gradual or traumatic.
Hearing Level
A measured threshold of hearing at a specified frequency, expressed in decibels relative to a specified standard of normal hearing.
Hearing Loss
An impairment of auditory acuity.
Hearing Protector
Personal device worn to reduce harmful auditory or annoying subjective effects of sound.
Hippocrates
He believed that "the four fluids or humours of the body (blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile) are the primary seats of disease."
Human Vibration
The effect of mechanical vibration in the environment on the human body.
Hyperbarism
Disturbances in the body resulting from an excess of the ambient pressure over that within the body fluids, tissues, and cavities.
Hyperoxia
A condition in which the total oxygen content of the body is increased above that normally existing at sea level.
Hypobarism
Disturbances resulting from a decrease of ambient pressure to less than that within the body fluids, tissues, and cavities.
in die
Latin meaning daily.
Ketosis
A metabolic condition in which the concentration of ketone bodies in the blood, tissues, and urine is abnormally high.
Kidney
An organ in the body which is used for excretion.
kilorad
Common unit of radiation dose equal to 1000 rads.
Laughing Gas
Nitrous oxide, an anaesthetic.
Lifetime Cancer Risk
The probability of contracting cancer over the course of a lifetime.
Magnesium Citrate

C6H6O7Mg

Used medicinally as a saline laxative and to empty the bowel prior to a surgery.

Magnesium Stearate

C36H70MgO4

Widely regarded as harmless, it is often used as a diluent in the manufacture of medical tablets.

Niacin
Vitamin B3 is a crystalline acid found in meat and yeast and produced by the oxidation of nicotine.
Nicotinic Acid
Vitamin B3 is a crystalline acid found in meat and yeast and produced by the oxidation of nicotine.
Nobel Prize
Awarded annually as per Alfred Nobel′s last will and testament.
Noise Induced Hearing Loss
A sensor-neural loss attributed to the effects of noise.
Objective Tinnitus
This refers to abnormal or pathological sounds originating within the body, in the region of the ear, which are audible to others than the subject.
Ossicles
A linkage of three tiny bones providing the mechanical coupling between the eardrum and the oval window of the cochlea consisting of the hammer, anvil, and stirrup.
Otologist
A physician who specializes in the ear and its diseases.
Oval Window
A tiny membranous window on the cochlea to which the foot plate of the stirrup ossicle is attached.
Pathogen
Any microorganism or substance that causes disease.
Physiological Acceleration
The acceleration experienced by a human in an accelerating vehicle.
Presbycusis
Gradual and biologically normal loss of acute hearing with advancing age.
Protein
A very large, naturally occurring polyamide formed from a selection of the 20 or so naturally occurring amino acids.
Rad
The rad is a unit used to measure absorbed radiation dose.
Radiation Absorbed Dose
The rad is a unit used to measure absorbed radiation dose.
Respiration
The process of generating energy from the oxidation of organic compounds, with the electrons transferred to oxygen as the final electron acceptor.
Riboflavin
Commonly known as vitamin B2.
Roentgen Equivalent Man (rem)
This relates to the absorbed dose in human tissue to the effective biological damage of the radiation.
Round Window
The tiny membrane of the cochlea that opens in the middle ear that serves as a "pressure release" for the cochlear fluid.
Schneider Index
A composite weighted index of pulse and blood-pressure response to exercise, utilized as a test of physical efficiency.
Semicircular Canals
The three sensory organs for balance that are a part of the cochlear structure.
Sensation Level
The level of psychophysiologic stimulation above the threshold.
Sensor-Neural Hearing Loss
Hearing loss originating in the cochlea or the fibres of the auditory nerve.
Significant Threshold Shift
A shift in hearing threshold, outside the range of audiometric testing variability.
Smell
Human can detect around 1 trillion different smells.
Synaesthesia
A cross talk effect in the brain in which one sensory pathway links across to another, resulting in two outputs from one input.
Temporary Threshold Shift
A temporary impairment of hearing acuity as indicated by a change in the threshold of audibility.
Teratogen
A substance that can cause deformities in embryos. Dioxin is a teratogen.
Tinnitus
Persistent sensation of ringing noises in the ear.
Tinnitus Aurium
This refers a subjective sensation of noises in the ears.
Toxic Vapours
Vapors emitted by a substance that can do bodily harm.
Vein
A blood vessel that carries blood towards the heart.
Virus
A small microbe. Viruses cause diseases such as the common cold, flu, polio and smallpox.

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