Obtained by reduction with aluminium or in a blast furnace. Pure manganese is a hard, brittle, silvery coloured, metallic element which exists in three polymorphic forms (alpha, beta and gamma) and has a complicated crystal structure. It resembles iron in being moderately reactive and dissolving in cold, dilute non-oxidising acids. When exposed to air, manganese forms an extremely stable oxide coating which is not easily reduced. Pure manganese is ferromagnetic after processing. Manganese is not used as the basis of alloys but it is a common constituent of alloys based on other systems, its addition resulting in a significant improvement in the physical and mechanical properties of the resulting alloys. For example, it is present in all steels and cast iron, the concentration being increased for special grades of material; it is also added to certain grades of brass and bronze as well as some nickel and aluminium base alloys. Manganese is also an important element for living beings as manganese deficiency can result in weakened bones and cause them to be easily broken. On average, a human body will contain 12 mg of the element.


1774 by J.G. Grahn in Stockholm, Sweden.

950 ppm in the earth’s crust.

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Atomic number 25 Clip
Atomic / Molecular Weight 54.938 gmol-1Clip
Density 7473 kgm-3Clip
Lattice constant 891 fmClip
Melting Point 1523 KClip
Boiling Point 2393 KClip
Specific heat capacity 477 Jkg-1K-1Clip
Latent heat of fusion 155000 Jkg-1Clip
Thermal conductivity 8 Wm-1K-1Clip
Acoustic wave velocity (longitudinal bulk waves) 4600 ms-1Clip
Acoustic wave velocity (Irrotational waves) 3830 ms-1Clip
Bulk Modulus of Rigidity 118000000000 Nm-2Clip
Electromotive Series 1.05 VClip
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See also: Periodic Table.

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Subjects: Chemistry