An electroacoustical transducer that changes electrical energy to acoustical energy.

The front view of a loudspeaker showing the cone, compliant surround and the outer part of the frame with the fixing holes.

side view of the loudspeaker with the magnet at the bottom, supporting frame and the wires to the voice coil just visible.


The ability of a driver to convert electrical energy into sound energy without wasting too much electrical energy.

Frequency Range

The range of frequencies over which a particular driver can operate effectively without creating significant distortion.

Frequency Response

The relative loudness of sound output over the entire range of frequencies. Frequency response is usually expressed as +/- dB (decibel) or as a graph.

Ideal Driver

A speaker driver that delivers excellent performance in terms of polar response, power handling, efficiency, frequency range and reliability.


The loudspeaker cone moves forward when a positive voltage is applied between its red and black terminals, then it is said to have a positive polarity.

See also: Acoustic Generator, Audio Transducer, Crossover, Crossover Frequency, Permanent Magnet Speaker, Polarity, Subwoofer, Toe-In, Tweeter, Universal Output Transformer, Woofer.

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Subjects: Electronics Noise & Vibration

Loudspeaker Design Information on designing and building loudspeaker enclosures.
Linkwitz Lab Accurate reproduction and recording of auditory scenes.