Lithium Metal Anode Battery
Lithium metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable batteries due to its extremely high theoretical specific capacity (3860 mA h g-1), low density (0.59 g cm-3) and the lowest negative electrochemical potential (-3.040 V vs. the standard hydrogen electrode).
Failure caused by dendrite growth in high-energy-density, rechargeable batteries with lithium metal anodes has prevented their widespread use. Contrary to conventional wisdom, it seems that preventing dendrite formation in polymer electrolytes depends on inhibiting the formation of subsurface structures in the lithium electrode. [ref: Harry et al]
Wu Xu, Jiulin Wang, Fei Ding, Xilin Chen, Eduard Nasybulin, Yaohui Zhangad and Ji-Guang Zhang, "Lithium metal anodes for rechargeable batteries", Energy Environ. Sci., 2014, Advance Article
Katherine J. Harry, Daniel T. Hallinan, Dilworth Y. Parkinson, Alastair A. MacDowell & Nitash P. Balsara, "Detection of subsurface structures underneath dendrites formed on cycled lithium metal electrodes", Nature Materials 13, 69-73 (2014)