|Photograph of the ore galena courtesy of Mineralite|
Lead is a soft, malleable and ductile metal. Lead oxidises readily in moist air, is stable to oxygen and water, but dissolves in nitric acid. It is a poor electrical and thermal conductor but has reasonable corrosion resistance. Applications for this metal are wide and varied; for example, its relative imperviousness to radiation makes it ideal as radiation shielding material for use with X-ray equipment. Lead is also used in ceramic glazes, batteries, paints, was used as a fuel additive in petrol (lead tetraethyl) and as a prime constituent of soft solders. Its use is now being discouraged as lead is now known to be detrimental to health, particularly to that of children. In Latin it is plumbum, hence symbol Pb.
- Also known as
- Known of and used since prehistoric times.
- 14 ppm of the Earth's crust. The main source of the metal is the ore "galena", lead (II) sulphide (PbS) which occurs as grey cubic crystals, often in conjunction with "sphalerite", the equivalent sulphide of zinc.
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| Atomic number|| 82|| ||Clip|
| Atomic / Molecular Weight|| 207.2|| gmol-1||Clip|
| Density|| 11343|| kgm-3||Clip|
| Crystal Structure|| fcc|| ||Clip|
| Lattice constant|| 495|| fm||Clip|
| Melting Point || 600.662|| K||Clip|
| Boiling Point || 2033|| K||Clip|
| Tensile strength || 12e6 to 17e6|| Nm-2||Clip|
| Linear expansivity|| 0.0000289|| K-1||Clip|
| Specific heat capacity|| 130|| Jkg-1K-1||Clip|
| Latent heat of fusion|| 23000|| Jkg-1||Clip|
| Thermal conductivity || 35|| Wm-1K-1||Clip|
| Acoustic wave velocity (longitudinal bulk waves)|| 2160|| ms-1||Clip|
| Acoustic wave velocity (Irrotational waves)|| 1188|| ms-1||Clip|
| Acoustic wave velocity (Shear waves)|| 700|| ms-1||Clip|
| Bulk Modulus of Rigidity|| 45800000000|| Nm-2||Clip|
| Electromotive Series|| 0.13|| V||Clip|
| Electrical Conductivity|| 4550000|| Sm-1||Clip|
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See also: Lead II Carbonate, Lead II Chromate IV, Lead II Oxide, Lead II Sulphide, Lead IV Oxide, Nonferrous, Periodic Table, Tetraethyl Lead, Tetramethyl Lead.