Germanium

Germanium is a silvery white brittle metalloid member of the carbon group of elements, its physical properties being similar to those of silicon, the element which precedes it in the group. Other elements within the carbon group are relatively common, but germanium is found only in trace amounts in some coals and as a minor component in some ores, the principle one being argyrodite, a double sulphide of silver and germanium (the mineral from which germanium was first isolated). The heater is moved along the length of the rod so that the molten zone travels from one end of the rod to the other. Impurities are more soluble in the molten metal than in the solid and thus concentrate in the liquid zone as it moves to one end of the rod). Germanium is stable in air and water and is unaffected by alkalis and acids, with the exception of nitric acid. It is a poor conductor of electricity but has exceptional properties as a semiconductor material and it is in this area where germanium is primarily used. ther applications include its use as an alloying element in the production of specific alloys and as an addition to glass in the manufacture of infrared devices.


Symbol
Ge

Discovered
C.A. Winkler at Freiberg, Germany.

Abundance
1.8 ppm of the Earth’s crust.

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Atomic number 32 Clip
Atomic / Molecular Weight 72.59 gmol-1Clip
Density 5323 kgm-3Clip
Lattice constant 566 fmClip
Melting Point 1232 KClip
Boiling Point 3103 KClip
Linear expansivity 0.0000057 K-1Clip
Specific heat capacity 322 Jkg-1K-1Clip
Electrical Conductivity 2.17 Sm-1Clip
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See also: Germane, Germanium II Chloride, Germanium II Selenide, Germanium IV Chloride, Germanium IV Oxide, Germanium IV Sulphide, Germanium Monoxide, Germanium Telluride, Periodic Table, Tetraethyl Germanium.

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Subjects: Chemistry