One of four metals which can be liquid at room temperature, gallium has the longest liquid range of any metal (2175 °C). Below its melting point, it is a soft, silvery white metal which is stable in both air and water. Extraction of the element is achieved by electrolytic reduction in aqueous solution. Gallium is used in the semiconductor industry due to its semiconductor properties of alloys formed with phosphorus, arsenic and antimony. It is also used in the manufacture of light emitting diodes and microwave equipment.


1875 by P.E. Lecoq de Boisbaudran in Paris, France.

It is only found as a minor constituent of various minerals and has an abundance of 18 ppm in the earth’s crust.

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Atomic number 31 Clip
Atomic / Molecular Weight 69.723 gmol-1Clip
Density 5905 kgm-3Clip
Crystal Structure fcc or ortho Clip
Lattice constant 452 fmClip
Melting Point 302.96 KClip
Boiling Point 2473 KClip
Specific heat capacity 381 Jkg-1K-1Clip
Thermal conductivity 41 Wm-1K-1Clip
Electromotive Series 0.5 VClip
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See also: Gallium II Selenide, Gallium II Telluride, Gallium III Bromide, Gallium III Chloride, Gallium III Fluoride, Gallium III Hydroxide, Gallium III Iodide, Gallium III Oxide, Gallium III Selenide, Gallium III Telluride, Gallium Nitride, Gallium Phosphide, Indium Gallium Aluminium Nitride, Indium Gallium Arsenide, Indium Gallium Nitride, Indium Gallium Phosphide, Periodic Table.

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Subjects: Chemistry