Famous Scientists & Engineers Topics

Abbe Ernst
German mathematician, physicist and inventor of much optical apparatus at the Zeiss works.
Alfven, Hannes
Swedish plasma physicist who won the 1970 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work developing the theory of magnetohydrodynamics.
Alfven, Hannes Olof Gosta
Won the 1970 Nobel Prize in Physics for fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with applications in different parts of plasma physics.
Alvarez, Luis Walter
American physicist who produced free protons with a particle accelerator.
Ammann, Othmar Herrmann
Engineer and designer of numerous long suspension bridges, including the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge over New York harbour.
Ampere Andre Marie
Permanent place in the history of science because it was his name that was given to the unit by which we measure electrical current.
Angstrom Anders, Jon
Swedish physicist and one of the pioneers of spectroscopy.
Apgar, Virginia
Professor of anesthesiology at the New York Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, devised the Apgar Scale in 1953.
Forever to be known for the Archimedean principle: "a body plunged in a fluid loses as much weight as... "
A Greek philosopher who stressed the importance of direct observations in securing facts and data.
Armstrong, Edwin Howard
American electrical engineer and inventor of the modern frequency modulation radio.
Arrhenius, Svante August
Swedish physicist and chemist who originated the modern theory of ionization of electrolytes. Received the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1903.
Arrol, Sir William
Scottish engineer who most notably built the Tay Rail Bridge in 1887, Forth Rail Bridge in 1890 and Tower Bridge in 1894.
Averroes, Ibn Roshd
Arabian philosopher and physician who helped to advance the science of his time.
Avogadro, Armedeo
His work provided a simple way to determine atomic weights and molecular weights of gases.
Babbage, Charles
The British inventor known to some as the Father of Computing.
Bacon, Francis
English natural philosopher.
Bacon, Francis Thomas
English engineer who developed the first practical hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell.
Baekeland, Leo Hendrik
Belgian-born American chemist who invented Velox photographic paper and Bakelite.
Baer, Karl Ernst von
German embryologist who developed the science of comparative embryology.
Baird, John Logie
Scottish engineer most notable for his invention of the television.
Baker, Sir Benjamin
The chief designer of the railway bridge over the Firth of Forth.
Balfour, Francis M
An English embryologist who wrote a comprehensive book. Comparative Embryology, thus ushering in this phase of the science.
Barnard, Christiaan Neethling
South African heart surgeon who developed surgical procedures for organ transplants, invented new heart valves, and performed the first human heart transplant.
Becquerel, Antoine-Henri
Discovered natural radioactivity and shared the Nobel Prize for physics for this discovery.
Behaim, Martin
Mapmaker, navigator, and merchant who made the earliest globe, called the "Nürnberg Terrestrial Globe".
Bell, Alexander Graham
Invented the telephone with Thomas Watson in 1876. Bell also improved Thomas Edison′s phonograph.
Bell, Henry
Scottish engineer and inventor who built a steam-powered boat.
Beneden, Eduard van
Cytologist who demonstrated the constance of chromosome numbers for the species, the reduction of their number during maturation of germ cells, and the restoration of the double number at fertilization.
Bernoulli, Daniel
Showed that the total energy in a steadily flowing fluid system is a constant along the flow path.
Berzelius, Jons Jakobs
Swedish physician and chemist. Discovered cerium, selenium, lithium, silicon, titanium and thorium; coined the terms "isomer" and "isomerism".
Bessemer, Henry
English engineer and inventor who developed an inexpensive steel-making process.
Bichat, Marie
French surgeon and anatomist who recognized that the organs of animals were composed of masses of substance to which the term tissue was applied.
Biot, Jean-Baptiste
French mathematician and physicist and one of the founders of the theory of electromagnetism.
Black, Joseph
Scottish chemist who laid the foundations for thermodynamics.
Blackett, Patrick Maynard Stuart
English chemist who developed the cloud chamber.
Blakeslee, Albert F
American botanist who applied the drug colchicine to dividing cells of plants, causing a doubling of the number of chromosomes with altered traits in the treated organisms.
Bloch, Felix
Won the 1952 Nobel Prize in Physics with Edward Mills Purcell for their "development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements."
Blume, John A
The father of earthquake engineering.
Blumlein, Alan Dower
Most famously responsible for inventing and patenting a stereo recording system.
Bohr, Niels
While at Copenhagen University, Bohr, in 1922, won the Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them."
Bollman, Wendel
Bridge Design Engineer who patented his unique suspension truss form and became the pioneer builder of iron railroad bridges in America.
Boltzmann, Ludwig Eduard
Austrian physicist famous for his contributions in the fields of statistical mechanics and statistical thermodynamics.
Bondi, Sir Hermann
Astrophysicist who helped formulate the steady-state theory of the universe - which said it has always existed.
Boole, George
British mathematician who devised a new form of algebra that represented logical expressions in a mathematical form now known as Boolean Algebra.
Borelli, Giovanni
Italian physiologist, philosopher, mathematician, and disciple of Galileo who applied the latter’s principles of physics to biology, thus suggesting an experimental approach to the science.
Born, Max
Won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics.
Bouch, Sir Thomas
Railway Engineer who invented caissons and train ferries.
Boyle, Robert
Known for that scientific law named after him.
Bragg, Sir William Henry
British physicist, chemist, mathematician and active sporstman who uniquely shared a Nobel Prize with his son.
Bragg, Sir William Lawrence
English physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1915 with his father Sir William Henry Bragg.
Brahe, Tycho
Danish astronomer who made precise observations of the sky.
Brassey, Thomas
One of the most important civil engineering contractors in the world in the nineteenth century, building railways in Britain, Europe, Asia, Australia, North and South America.
Braun, Werner von
German rocket engineer.
Brayton, George
American engineer who patented an internal-combustion engine that was displayed at the 1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Brindley, James
Leading canal builder in the UK.
Broglie, Louis-Victor de
He demonstrated mathematically that electrons and other subatomic particles exhibit wavelike properties.
Brown, Robert
Discovered the brownian movement of minute particles.
Brunel, Isambard Kingdom
Creator of the Great Western Railway, bridge builder and revolutionary naval architect.
Bruno, Giordano
Scientist, which, for his beliefs, the church burnt at the stake.
Bunsen, Robert Wilhelm
Introduced the bunsen burner.
Cardoso, Edgar
Bridge engineer.
Carothers, Wallace Hume
Carried out the key early experiments that led to commercial polyesters, nylons, and neoprene while working for the DuPont corporation.
Carrier, Willis
American engineer and inventor, and is known as the man who invented modern air conditioning.
Casagrande, Arthur
Geotechnical Engineer, major contributor of the developments of Soil Mechanics.
Cavendish, Henry
English physicist and chemist, discovered hydrogen.
Caxton, William
First English printer. Produced nearly 100 publications, including The Canterbury Tales and Troilus and Criseyde by the English poet Goeffrey Chaucer and Confessio Amantis by the English poet John Gower.
Celsius, Anders
Swedish professor of astronomy who devised the Celsius thermometer.
Chadwick, James
English physicist who discovered the neutron.
Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan
Indian astrophysicist reknowned for creating theoretical models of white dwarf stars, among other achievements.
Charles, Jacques Alexander César
The French scientist after which is named the Charles′s Law which made the connection that a rise in temperature expanded the volume of gas.
Child, Charles
American biologist who proposed the axial gradient theory to explain the differences in rates of metabolism along the axes of living organisms.
Church, Alonzo
Mathematician and logician, and one of the founders of computer science.
Clausius, Rudolph Julius Emmanuel
German mathematical physicist; restated the second law of thermodynamics; coined the term "entropy".
Clerk-Maxwell, James
Clerk-Maxwell′s greatest work was his initial contribution to electromagnetic radiation.
Coolidge, William D
American physicist, who made major contributions to X-ray machines.
Copernicus, Nicolaus
Polish astronomer who advanced the theory that the Earth and other planets revolve around the Sun.
Coulomb, Charles Augustin de
Physicist, best known for the formulation of Coulomb′s law.
Cousteau, Jacques
French marine biologist, explorer, ecologist, filmmaker, photographer and researcher who studied the sea and all forms of life in water.
Cray, Seymour
American electrical engineer and supercomputer architect who designed a series of computers that were the fastest in the world for decades, and founded Cray Research which would build many of these machines.
Crick, Francis
Noted for being one of the co-discoverers of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953.
Crookes, William
English chemist and physicist who discovered thallium.
Curie, Pierre & Marie
French physicists, researched radioactivity.
Daguerre, Louis-Jacques-Mande
French artist and inventor; developed the daguerreotype photochemical process.
Dalton, John
He developed atomic theory that accounts for the law of conservation of mass, law of definite proportions and law of multiple proportions.
Darcy, Henry
Hydraulic Engineer, best known for Darcy′s law.
Darwin, Charles
Darwin struck upon the theory of evolution.
Davenport, Thomas
Blacksmith and inventor who established the first commercially successful electric streetcar.
Davy, Sir Humphry
English scientist who invented the first electric light in 1800.
Debye, Peter
Dutch physicist and physical chemist famous for his research on polar molecules. Nobel laureate in Chemistry.
Descartes, Rene
Considered the father of analytic geometry, he formulated the Cartesian system of coordinates.
Diesel, Rudolf
Inventor of the diesel engine.
Dirac, Paul
English physicist; published Principles of Quantum Mechanics in 1930.
Dolby, Ray
Audio system innovator and founder of Dolby Laboratories.
Drew, Charles Richard
American medical doctor and surgeon who started the idea of a blood bank and a system for the long-term preservation of blood plasma.
Duckworth, Keith
English mechanical engineer most famous for designing the Cosworth DFV engine that revolutionised the sport of Formula One.
Edison, Thomas
American inventor, scientist, and businessman who developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb.
Ehrlich, Paul
German chemist and bacteriologist; proposed a chemical explanation of immunity.
Eiffel, Gustave
Structural Engineer and designer of the Eiffel Tower.
Einstein, Albert
We may of heard of his Theory of Relativity and his Electromagnetic Theory of Light; but few of us will ever understand them.
Around 230BC developed a method for finding all prime numbers.
Greek mathematician.
Fahrenheit Gabriel Daniel
German-born physicist who invented the mercury thermometer and devised the Fahrenheit temperature scale.
Famous Scientists & Engineers Books
Lists all Famous Scientists & Engineers Books in the Encyclopaedia
Famous Scientists & Engineers Weblinks
Lists all Famous Scientists & Engineers Weblinks in the Encyclopaedia
Faraday, Michael
English chemist and physicist who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
Ferranti, Sebastian de
High voltage ac generation and transmission.
His book "Liber Abaci" he introduced Arabic notation for numerals and their algorithms for arithmetic.
Fischer, Emil Hermann
Organic chemist who analyzed structures of carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes and amino acids.
Fleming, Alexander
Bacteriologist who isolated lysozyme from tears and observed a mould that he named penicillin.
Fleming, Sir John Ambrose
British electrical engineer and inventor known for his work on electric lighting, wireless telegraphy, and the telephone.
Fleming, Sir Sandford
Scottish-born Canadian engineer and inventor, known for proposing worldwide standard time zones, Canada′s postage stamp, a huge body of surveying and map making, engineering much of the Intercolonial Railway and the Canadian Pacific Railway.
Forbes, Prof George
Invented carbon brush used in electric motors and designed the electrification system for London Underground.
Forrester, Jay W
Pioneer in early digital computer development and invented random-access, coincident-current magnetic storage, which became the standard memory device for digital computers.
Fourier, Baron Jean Baptiste Joseph
French mathematician and physicist who formulated a method for analyzing periodic functions and studied the conduction of heat.
Frisch, Otto
Advanced the theory that uranium, when bombarded by neutrons, breaks into smaller atoms.
Fung Yuan-Cheng
Widely recognized as the father of biomechanics, having established the fundamentals of biomechanical properties in many of the human body′s organs and tissues.
Galileo Galilei
Astronomer, mathematician and physicist he dwelt, not on the useless question, why do things happen? but, how do things happen?
Gay-Lussac, Joseph Louis
Developed the law of volumes concerning the combination of gases and discovered boron.
Geiger, Johannes
Helped to develop first successful counter of alpha particles.
Goddard, Robert Hutchings
Pioneered modern rocketry and space flight and founded a whole field of science and engineering.
Gresley, Sir Nigel
One of Britain′s most famous steam locomotive engineers, who rose to become Chief Mechanical Engineer of the London and North Eastern Railway - LNER.
Halley, Edmund
Mathematician and astronomer.
Hann Otto
Discovered protactinium with Lise Meitner, first to recognize nuclear fission and shared Nobel Prize for chemistry with Fritz Strassmann for this development.
Havilland, Sir Geoffrey de
One of the most successful of all British aviation pioneers.
Hawking, Stephen
Known for his contributions to the fields of cosmology and quantum gravity, especially in the context of black holes.
Hertz Heinrich
A German physics professor who did the first experiments with generating and receiving electromagnetic waves, in particular radio waves.
A Greek astronomer who carried out his observations at Rhodes.
He believed that "the four fluids or humours of the body (blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile) are the primary seats of disease."
Hopper, Grace Murray
Developed the first computer compiler in 1952 and the computer program language COBOL. Upon discovering that a moth had jammed the works of an early computer, Hopper popularized the term "bug."
Hubble, Edwin
American astronomer who profoundly changed understanding of the universe by confirming the existence of galaxies other than our own, the Milky Way.
Jenner, Edward
Credited as the pioneer of smallpox vaccine, and is sometimes referred to as the "Father of Immunology"; his works have been said to have "saved more lives than the work of any other man".
Joule, James Prescott
English physicist; determined the mechanical equivalent of heat; proposed Joule′s Law which describes the rate at which heat is produced by an electric current.
Kelvin, William Thomson
British physicist known for his pioneering work in thermodynamics and electricity.
Kepler, Johannes
German astronomer and mathematics teacher who formulated laws that formed the groundwork of Newton′s discoveries, and are the starting point of modern astronomy.
Khan, Fazlur
Bangladeshi American architect and structural engineer who was a central figure behind the "Second Chicago School" of architecture and is regarded as the Father of tubular design for high-rises.
Kirchoff, Gustav
German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects.
Laplace Marquis Pierre Simon de
French mathematician and astronomer who formulated the theory of probability.
Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent
Often referred to as the father of modern chemistry he was the first to grasp the true explanation of combustion. He contended that fire was the result of rapid union of the burned material with oxygen.
Leeuwenhoek, Antonie van
Commonly known as "the Father of Microbiology", and considered to be the first microbiologist.
Lenoir, Jean-Joseph-Etienne
French inventor and internal combustion engine pioneer who patented a single cylinder engine running on kerosene in 1860.
Leonardo of Pisa
Fibonacci was also known as Leonardo of Pisa.
Lickey, Sir Robert
Scottish engineer who designed the WW2 fighter Hawker Hurricane and the first Harrier vertical take-off jet.
Lorenz, Edward Norton
American mathematician and meteorologist, and a pioneer of chaos theory.
Lovelace, Ada
The daughter of Lord Byron, who became the world′s first programmer while cooperating with Charles Babbage on the design of his mechanical computing engines in the mid-1800s.
Malpighi, Marcello
An Italian scientist and physician who studied tissues and organs microscopically and is considered the founder of microanatomy.
Marconi, Guglielmo
Italian inventor, known as the father of long distance radiotransmission and for his development of Marconi′s law and a radio telegraph system, which served as the foundation for the establishment of numerous affiliated companies worldwide.
Marcus, Siegfried
Austrian inventor who built and drove a carriage propelled by a two cylinder gasoline engine.
Markov, Andrei
Russian mathematician, after who Markov chains were named.
Maudslay, Henry
Perhaps the greatest machine tool engineer of the early nineteenth century.
Maudslay, Joseph
Son of the famous inventor and engineer Henry Maudslay. Joseph worked in the family firm, Maudslay, Sons & Field and specialised in marine engineering, patenting the Oscillating engine.
Maxwell, James Clerk
Physicist who developed the field theory of electricity and magnetism, developed electromagnetic wave theory of light and a theory on viscosity of gases based on the statistical behaviour of gas molecules.
Mayer, Julius Robert von
German physician and physicist. He and James Joule shared the credit for the discovery of the universal law of conservation of energy, or the first law of thermodynamics.
Meitner, Lise
Physicist who collaborated with Otto Hahn to discover protactinium and with Hahn and Fritz Strassmann to accomplish the fission of uranium.
Mendel, Gregor Johann
An Austrian scientist and monk who described the inheritance of garden peas in a paper entitled Experiments in plant hybridization.
Mendeleev, Dmitri Ivanovich
Russian chemist; developed the periodic table by placing the elements in order of increasing atomic weight.
Messier, Charles
18th century French astronomer who compiled a list of approximately 100 fuzzy, diffuse looking objects which appeared at fixed positions in the sky.
Mestral, George de
Swiss engineer who invented Velcro.
Michelson, Albert Abraham
Invented the interferometer and was the first American to win a Nobel Prize.
Mill, John Stuart
An English philosopher who elaborated on the philosophy of induction, propounding as its basis the law of the uniformity of nature.
Mitchell, Reginald Joseph
Chief designer at the aircraft company Supermarine and famous for designing the Spitfire.
Mohl, Hugo von
Botanist who found that plant cells were composed of a living substance and used the term protoplasm much as we do today.
Mohs, Friederich
German geologist and inveenter of the hardness scale named after him.
Montgolfier, Jacques Etienne
Jacques and brother Joseph made the first successful hot-air balloon flight in 1782.
Montgolfier, Joseph
Joseph and brother Jacques made the first successful hot-air balloon flight in 1782.
Morgan, Thomas Hunt
Biologist and Nobel Prize winner who contributed to the knowledge of the mechanism of heredity.
Moseley, Henry Gwyn-Jeffreys
English physicist who demonstrated that the number of electrons in an element is the same as the atomic number, establishing the significance of the atomic number.
Murdock, William
Built first steam powered lorry in 1784 and invented gas lighting.
Napier, John
British mathematician and inventor of the logarithm.
Newcomen, Thomas
Created the first practical steam engine for pumping water, the Newcomen steam engine.
Newton, Isaac
Newton was a mathematician and natural philosopher (physicist).
Oersted, Hans Christian
Danish physicist, who discovered electromagnetism in 1820.
Ohm, Georg Simon
German physicist noted for his contributions to mathematics, acoustics, and the measurement of electrical resistance.
Otto, Nikolaus August
German engineer who built a four-stroke gas engine, the most direct ancestor to today′s automobile engines.
Parsons, Charles Algernon
English engineer, best known for his invention of the steam turbine.
Pascal, Blaise
French philosopher and mathematician whose many achievements include the invention of an adding machine and the development of the modern theory of probability.
Pasteur, Louis
Remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and preventions of diseases. His discoveries reduced mortality from puerperal fever, and he created the first vaccine for rabies and anthrax.
Pauling, Linus
American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author and educator. Among the first scientists to work in the fields of quantum chemistry and molecular biology.
Pitot, Henri
French astronomer, engineer and mathematician who invented the Pitot Tube in 1732.
Planck, Max
German physicist who is regarded as the founder of the quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.
He believed that Earth was the centre of the universe and that everything orbited it.
Greek philosopher and mathematician; held that numbers were basic to matter.
Ramsay, William
Discovered Argon, Krypton and Xenon and independently discovered Helium on earth.
Rutan, Burt
American aerospace engineer noted for his originality in designing light, strong, unusual-looking, energy-efficient aircraft.
Rutherford, Ernest
The pioneers of subatomic physics.
Sabine, Wallace Clement
The Harvard professor honoured as the father of architectural acoustics for his investigations into concert hall sound at the turn of the century.
Salk, Jonas
American medical researcher and virologist, best known for his discovery and development of the first safe and effective polio vaccine.
Savery, Thomas
English military engineer and inventor who in 1698, patented the first crude steam engine, based on Denis Papin′s Digester or pressure cooker of 1679.
Schrödinger, Erwin
Austrian physicist; developed atomic theory of wave mechanics.
Seaborg, Glenn
American nuclear chemist.
Shannon, Claude
American mathematician and physicist who is credited as the father of information theory.
Siegbahn, Karl
Swedish physicist who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1924 for his work in x-ray spectroscopy.
Stephenson, George
The Father of Railways, an English civil engineer and mechanical engineer who built the first public railway line in the world to use steam locomotives.
Stephenson, Robert
English civil engineer. He was the only son of George Stephenson, the famed locomotive builder and railway engineer; many of the achievements popularly credited to his father were actually the joint efforts of father and son.
Telford, Thomas
Scottish civil engineer, architect and stonemason, and a noted road, bridge and canal builder.
Thomson, Sir Joseph John
British physicist and Nobel laureate, credited for the discovery of the electron and of isotopes, and the invention of the mass spectrometer.
Trevithick, Richard
British inventor and mining engineer. His most significant success was the high pressure steam engine and he was also the builder of the first full-scale working railway steam locomotive.
Turing, Alan
A British mathematician, inventor of the Turing Machine and proposed the Turing test, whose work was fundamental in the theoretical foundations of computer science.
Volta, Alessandro, Count (1745-1827)
He invented the first practical battery using cells made from two kinds of metals; this verified his theory of differing electrical potentials for unlike metals.
Wallace, Alfred Russel
One of the 19th century′s most remarkable intellectuals. Not only did he co-discover the process of evolution by natural selection with Charles Darwin in 1858, but he also made very many other significant contributions, not just to biology, but also to subjects as diverse as glaciology, land reform, anthropology, ethnography, epidemiology, and astrobiology.
Wallis, Barnes
British engineer and inventor famous for the R100, Wellington bomber and the bouncing bombs.
Wankel, Felix Heinrich
Inventor and developer of the wankel engine, a rotary engine.
Warburg, Otto H
German biochemist who was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1931 for his contributions to cellular metabolism.
Watt, James
He made fundamental improvements in the steam engine, resulting in the modern, high-pressure steam engine, patented in 1769.
Whittle, Frank
Inventor of the turbojet and turbofans.
Whitworth, Joseph Sir
19th century engineer with a world-wide reputation of producing machines of unrivaled quality and precision.
Wollaston, William Hyde
English physician and chemist who discovered palladium and rhodium through his work with platinum metals.
Yalow, Rosalyn
Co-inventer of radioimmunoassay for which she won the 1977 Nobel Proze in Medicine.
Young, James
Pioneered process of refining oil into Paraffin.
Yukawa, Hideki
Received the 1949 Nobel proze in physics for his work in postulating the existence of Mesons.
Zeppelin, Ferdinand von
German general and later airship manufacturer. Most famously the founder of the Zeppelin Airship company.
Ziegler Karl
Nobel prize winning chemist who did a vast quantity of work on the catalysts for producing high density polyethene and polypropene.
Zworykin, Vladimir Kosma
Played a role in the practical development of television from the early thirties, including charge storage-type tubes, infrared image tubes and the electron microscope.

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Subjects: Chemistry Mathematics Mechanical Engineering Physics

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