Engine Configurations

Various configurations of engine have been developed over the years for power, low noise and vibration, economy or weight.

Single Cylinder - Horizontal

The first internal combustion engines were single cylinder designs and mostly stationary engines.

Inline Twin

This particular engine is a model two-stroke glow plug engine.

Opposed Twin or Flat Twin

A model engine built by Ron Lane.

V Twin

Two-cylinder engine with the cylinders arranged in the shaped of a V when looking along the line of the crankshaft.

I3

An inline 3 cylinder engine.

V3

The cylinder banks resemble the letter W when looking down the line of the crank e.g. Honda NS500 Grand Prix racing motorcycle engine.

W3

Anzani 3 cylinder

3 Cylinder Radial

Anzani Y-Type 3 cylinder radial

I4

A Gypsy Major 4 cylinder inline aero engine showing the cylinders in different states of build. Far left missing cylinder head, cylinder and piston, second from left showing the piston to far right showing the complete cylinder with head and valve gear fitted.

Flat 4

A horizontally opposed four cylinder engine. The image shows a model engine built by Ron Lane.

V4

Four-cylinder engine with the cylinders arranged in two banks of 2 and the shape of a V when looking along the line of the crankshaft.

W4

The cylinder banks resemble the letter W when looking down the line of the crank.

I5

An inline 5 cylinder engine.

V5

Five cylinder engine with the cylinders arranged so that there is one bank of 3 cylinders and one bank of 2 cylinders and the shape of a V when looking along the line of the crankshaft.

5 Cylinder Radial

A model 5 cylinder radial engine built by Ron Lane.

5 Cylinder Rotary

The engine rotates around the fixed crankshaft.

6 Cylinder Radial

Anzani 6 cylinder radial.

Flat 6

A horizontally opposed six cylinder engine.

I6

The Rolls Royce Hawk, an inline six cylinder engine.

V6

Six-cylinder engine with the cylinders arranged in two banks of 3 and the shape of a V when looking along the line of the crankshaft.

7 Cylinder Radial

A model 7 cylinder radial engine.

7 Cylinder Rotary

The engine rotates around the fixed crankshaft.

I8

An inline 8 cylinder engine.

V8

Eight-cylinder engine with the cylinders arranged in two banks of 4 and the shape of a V when looking along the line of the crankshaft. In this case a model V8 with individual cylinders that clearly show the arrangement.

Flat 8

A horizontally opposed eight cylinder engine.

W8

The cylinder banks resemble the letter W when looking down the line of the crank.

9 Cylinder Rotary

Rotary engines were used extensively in early aircraft.

9 Cylinder Radial

Alvis Leonides 9 cylinder radial.

I10

An inline ten cylinder engine.

V10

Ten-cylinder engine with the cylinders arranged in two banks of 5 and the shape of a V when looking along the line of the crankshaft.

V12

Twelve-cylinder engine with the cylinders arranged in two banks of 6 and the shape of a V when looking along the line of the crankshaft. The photograph shows a Daimler Double Six.

Flat 12

A horizontally opposed twelve cylinder engine.

I12

An inline twelve cylinder engine.

W12

The cylinder banks resemble the letter W when looking down the line of the crank.

14 Cylinder Radial

1850hp Wright R-2600-29 Cyclone 14-cylinder radial. Note that this is effectively two 7 cylinder radials back to back with the rear bank of cylinders being rotated half the cylinder to cylinder spacing.

I14

An inline fourteen cylinder engine.

Flat 16

A horizontally opposed sixteen cylinder engine.

V16

Sixteen-cylinder engine with the cylinders arranged in two banks of 8 and the shape of a V when looking along the line of the crankshaft.

H16

The basic design is that of two flat horizontally opposed 8 cylinder engines geared onto a common shaft.

18 Cylinder Radial

ote that this is effectively two 9 cylinder radials back to back with the rear bank of cylinders being rotated half the cylinder to cylinder spacing.

W18

Isotta Fraschini W18. The cylinder banks resemble the letter W when looking down the line of the crank.

V20

A V engine with 20 cylinders arranged in two banks of 10 cylinders.

H24

The Napier Sabre III, twenty four-cylinder liquid cooled horizontally opposed, H-shaped sleeve valve engine, 2250hp at 4000rpm, bore 127mm stroke 121mm, weight 1066kg. The basic design is that of two flat horizontally opposed 12 cylinder engines geared onto a common shaft.

V24

A V engine with 24 cylinders arranged in two banks of 12 cylinders.

X24

Looking at the end of the crankshaft the cylinders form an ′X′. An example of such an engine is the 24 cylinder Rolls-Royce Vulture engine that has four banks of six cylinders.

28 Cylinder Radial

Sometimes known as the corncob as it consists of 4 banks of 7 cylinder radial engines.

36 Cylinder Radial

4 banks of 9 cylinders arranged around a central crank e.g. Lycoming R-7755.

See also: Engine, Engine Excitation Mechanisms, Engine Orders, Flat Four Engine, Flat Six Engine, Flat Twin Engine, Horizontally Opposed Engine, Inline Engine, Radial Engine, Rotary Engine, Transverse Engine, V Engine, V Twin, X Engine.

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Subjects: Automotive Engines


Weblinks:
glue-it.co.uk Photographic reference material.