The least massive electrically-charged particle, hence absolutely stable. It is the most common lepton, with electric charge -1. A unit of energy equal to the kinetic energy acquired by an electron or proton falling through an electric potential difference of 1 volt.

Electrons surround the atom's positively charged nucleus and determine the atom's chemical properties.

Electrons emitted from the nucleus of an atom are called beta particles.

Electric Field

In an electric field the force on an electron is given by:
F = eE

F = force [N]
e = electron charge [C]
E = electric field intensity [Vm-1]

Magnetic Field

An electron moving with velocity v at right angles to a magnetic field of magnetic flux density B experiences a force F given by:
F = Bev
F = force [N]
B = magnetic flux density [weberm-2]
e = electron charge [C]
v = velocity [ms-1]

Spin-Orbit Effect

An effect that causes atomic energy levels to be split because electrons have intrinsic angular momentum in addition to their extrinsic orbital angular momentum.

Click on an item to paste into clipboard or use clipboard symbol at end to clipboard all values
electron mass 9.10938188e-31 kgClip
electron charge 1.602176462e-19 CClip
electron-muon mass ratio 4.83633210e-3 Clip
electron-tau mass ratio 2.87555e-4 Clip
electron-proton mass ratio 5.446170232e-4 Clip
electron-neutron mass ratio 5.438673462e-4 Clip
electron-deuteron mass ratio 2.7244371170e-4 Clip
electron-alpha particle mass ratio 1.3709335611e-4 Clip
electron charge to mass quotient 1.758820174e11 Ckg-1Clip
electron molar mass 5.485799110e-7 kgmol-1Clip
Compton wavelength 2.426310215e-12 mClip
classical electron radius 2.817940285e-15 mClip
Thomson cross-section 0.665245854e-28 m2Clip
electron magnetic moment -928.476362e-26 JT-1Clip
electron magnetic moment anomaly 1.1596521869e-3 Clip
electron g-factor -2.0023193043737 Clip
electron-muon magnetic moment ratio 206.7669720 Clip
electron-proton magnetic moment ratio -658.2106875 Clip
electron-neutron magnetic moment ratio 960.92050 Clip
electron-deuteron magnetic moment ratio -2143.923498 Clip
electron gyromagnetic ratio 1.760859794e11 s-1T-1Clip
paste all data into clipboardpaste all data into clipboard

Historical Notes

  1. 1897 Electron discovered by Sir Joseph Thomson.
  2. 1899 Sir Joseph Thomson measures the charge on the electron, and proves that it carries the same amount of charge as the hydrogen ions in electrolysis.
  3. 1900 Paul Karl Ludwig Drude shows that moving electrons conduct electricity in metals.
  4. 1925 Pauli proposed the Exclusion Principle, no two electrons in an atom can have the same set of quantum numbers.
  5. 1927 Experiment by Davisson and Germer, and simultaneous experiment by G. P. Thompson, proved the wave behaviour of electrons.
  6. 1933 Electron microscope invented by Ernst Ruska.

See also: Atomic Orbital, Atomic Particle, Beta Particle, Classical Electron Radius, Electron Affinity, Electron Beam, Electron Capture, Electron Flow, Electron Spin, Electron Spin Pair, Electron-Positron Annihilation, Electrophile, Exclusion Principle, Fermions, Gyrofrequency, Hunds Rule, Landau Damping, Lepton, Millikan Oil Drop Experiment, Muon, Neutrino, Neutron, Particle Accelerator, Physical Constants, Positron, Proton, Secondary Electron, Spin, Spin-Orbit Effect, Thomson Cross Section, Thomson, Sir Joseph John, Vacuum Zero, Valence Electrons, Wave Particle Duality, Wobble Frequency, Zero-Point Pressure.

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Subjects: Nuclear and Particle Physics