Electrochemistry Topics

1.602e-19 C
Electron charge.
6.022e23mol-1
Avogadro′s number
9.648456e4Cmol-1
Faraday constant
Absorbed Glass Mat Battery
A type of lead acid battery where the electrolyte is absorbed in a matrix of glass fibres holding the electrolyte next to the lead plates.
Absorbent Glass Mat Battery
A separator technology used in some sealed lead-acid batteries in which the glass-mat separator absorbs 100% of the electrolyte.
Active Cell Balancing
This operates by moving energy from cells with a high SoC to cells with a lower SoC.
AGM Battery
Abbreviation of Absorbent Glass Mat Battery.
Alkali Fuel Cell
Operate on compressed hydrogen and oxygen and generally use a solution of potassium hydroxide in water as their electrolyte. Operating temperatures inside alkali cells are around 150 to 200°C.
Alkaline Battery
A storage battery which uses an alkaline electrolyte.
Alkaline Water Electrolysis
A solution of 20–40% sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide aqueous solution is used for electrolyte instead of pure water, since pure water is highly resistive to electricity.
Ampere Hour Capacity
A measurement of storage battery ability to deliver a specified current over a specified length of time.
Anode
The electrode where electrons are lost (oxidized) in redox reactions.
Anode Corrosion
The dissolution of a metal acting as an anode.
Anode Effect
A condition in an electrolytic cell that produces an abrupt increase in cell voltage and a decrease in current flow.
Anode Mud
The insoluble residue that derives from the anodic dissolution of an impure metal such as copper during electrorefining.
Anode Slime
Another name for Anode Mud.
Anodic Metal
Any metal that tends to dissolve, corrode, or oxidize in preference to another metal when the metals are connected electrically in the presence of an electrolyte.
Anodic Protection
A technique to reduce the corrosion rate of a metal by polarizing it into its passive region, where dissolution rates are low.
Anodic Reaction
Electrode reaction equivalent to a transfer of positive charge from the electronic to the ionic conductor; an anodic reaction is an oxidation process.
Anodize
To coat a metal with a protective film by electrolysis.
Anolyte
The electrolyte on the anode side of an electrochemical cell that is divided into compartments.
Aqueous Battery
A battery based on an electrolyte dissolved in water.
Automotive Battery
A battery designed to start and run automobile.
Auxiliary Electrode
Another name for a Counter Electrode.
Barrier Film
A thin, continuous, non-porous, electrically insulating film on metal surfaces that is usually comprised of oxides.
Battery
A device for converting chemical energy into electrical energy.
Battery Abuse Testing
A series of tests to establish that the battery is not a danger to the user or to itself under any conceivable conditions of use or abuse.
Battery Acid
A solution of approximately 6M sulfuric acid used in the lead storage battery.
Battery Capacity
The amount of energy available from a battery. Battery capacity is expressed in ampere-hours.
Battery Cell Balancing
Where a battery pack consists of more than one cell it is important that the cells are balanced.
Battery Charger
A device capable of supplying electrical energy to a battery.
Battery Cycle Life
How many charge/discharge cycles the battery can endure before it loses its ability to hold a useful charge.
Battery Discharge Rate
The maximum rate at which a battery may discharged and charged is normally expressed as a fraction or multiplier of the battery capacity.
Battery Efficiency
This the energy out of a battery during discharge divided by the energy in during charging.
Battery Energy Capacity
The total energy available, expressed in watt-hours, which can be withdrawn from a fully charged cell or battery.
Battery Internal Short-Circuit
A direct connection between the positive and negative terminals of a cell or battery that provides a virtual zero resistance path for current flow.
Battery Memory Effect
A phenomenon in which a cell, operated in successive cycles to the same, but less than a full, depth of discharge experiences a depression of its discharge voltage and temporarily loses the rest of its capacity at normal voltage levels.
Battery Rupture
Mechanical failure of a cells container or battery case induced by an internal or external cause, resulting in exposure or spillage but not ejection of solid materials.
Battery Separator
A porous membrane placed between electrodes of opposite polarity, permeable to ionic flow but preventing electric contact of the electrodes.
Battery Testing
The measurement of single or multiple battery cells under given test criteria to determine their operational parameters.
Battery Vent
A safety device built into almost all cells designed to release internal pressure in the case of overcharge, over temperature and other abuses.
Battery Venting
The release of excessive internal pressure from a cell or battery in a manner intended by design to preclude rupture or disassembly.
Bioelectrochemistry
Electrochemistry of biological systems and biological compounds.
Bipolar Battery
Design in which the component cells are connected through plates which each, in turn, act as the current-collector for the positive electrode in one cell and for the negative in the adjacent cell.
Bipolar Lead Acid Battery
Design in which the cells are connected through the plates which each, in turn, act as the current-collector for the positive electrode in one cell and for the negative in the adjacent cell.
Button Cell
A single-cell, miniature battery, such as a watch battery, that is the size and shape of a button.
Calomel Electrode
A commonly used reference electrode.
Capacitive Current
The current flowing through an electrochemical cell that is charging/discharging the electrical double layer capacitance.
Carbon Zinc Battery
A battery packaged in a zinc can that serves as both a container and negative terminal. It was developed from the wet Leclanché cell.
Cataphoresis
Another name for Electrophoresis.
Catholyte
The electrolyte on the cathode side of an electrochemical cell that is divided into compartments.
Caustic
A substance that causes corrosion.
Cell Mismatch
The condition of a battery pack that contains cells with significant variations in voltage or capacity.
Cell Reaction
The overall chemical reaction occurring in the electrochemical cell. It is the sum of the two electrode reactions.
Cell Voltage
The electrical potential difference between the two electrodes of an electrochemical cell.
Cementation
The process of spontaneous reduction of the ions of a metal by another metal above it in the electromotive series.
Charge Carrier
The particle carrying the electrical charge during the flow of electrical current.
Charge Density
Charge referred to the unit area of the electrode.
Charge Rate
The current applied to a rechargeable battery to restore its capacity.
Charge Transfer Resistance
A characteristic quantity for an electrode reaction indicative of its inherent speed. A large charge-transfer resistance indicates a slow reaction.
Charge Transport
The phenomenon of movement of electrical charge from one part of the system to another, occurring through electromigration.
Charging
The process of supplying electrical energy to a discharged battery for conversion to stored chemical energy.
Charging Voltage
The voltage used to overcome a battery′s internal resistance and to recharge the battery.
Chronoamperometry
An electrochemical measuring technique used for electrochemical analysis or for the determination of the kinetics and mechanism of electrode reactions.
Chronocoulometry
An electrochemical measuring technique used for electrochemical analysis or for the determination of the kinetics and mechanism of electrode reactions.
Chronopotentiometry
An electrochemical measuring technique used for electrochemical analysis or for the determination of the kinetics and mechanism of electrode reactions.
Clark Electrode
An amperometric sensor assembly used for the measurement of dissolved oxygen concentration in water or aqueous solutions.
Coin Cell
A miniature non-rechargeable battery, in the shape and size of a small coin used to power small electronic devices.
Combination Electrode
An assembly that combines an ion-selective electrode and a reference electrode in one physical structure.
Conducting Polymer
A polymeric material having electronic conductivity.
Conductometry
An electroanalytical technique based upon the measurement of the conductivity an electrolyte solution.
Constant Current Battery Charger
A battery charger with output current that stays relatively constant as the battery state of charge increases.
Corrosion
Deteriorative loss of a metal as a result of dissolution environmental reactions.
Corrosion Current Density
The current flowing in a corrosion "local" cell.
Corrosion Potential
The electrode potential of a corroding metal.
Coulometer
Instrument used for the measurement of electrical charge.
Coulometry
An electroanalytical technique based upon the measurement of the amount of electrical charge passed through the working electrode of an electrochemical cell.
Coulostatic Technique
Technique for electrochemical analysis or for the determination of the kinetics and mechanism of electrode reactions based on the control of the amount of charge flowing through the system.
Coulter Counter
Instrument used to count the number of small particles in a given volume of a suspension by monitoring decreases in electrical conductivity through a small orifice caused by the particles passing through the orifice.
Counter Electrode
An electrode in a three-electrode cell that is used only to make an electrical connection to the electrolyte so that a current can be applied to the working electrode.
Counterion
The mobile ion in ion exchange.
Cutoff Voltage
Specified closed circuit voltage at which a cell is terminated.
Cylindrical Battery
A cylindrical shaped battery such as an 18650.
Deep Cycle Battery
A battery that is designed to withstand repetitive discharges to less than 20% State of Charge and to continue providing its rated capacity after hundreds of cycles.
Dendrite
A crystal that has a tree-like branching pattern.
Dezincification
Corrosive removal of zinc from a brass surface, leaving rough copper.
Direct Fuel Cell
A type of fuel cell in which a hydrocarbon fuel is fed directly to the fuel cell stack, without requiring an external reformer to generate hydrogen.
Direct Methanol Fuel Cell
A direct methanol fuel cell functions in a similar way to a PEMFC and uses the same electrolyte, but reforms methanol directly on its electrode to form hydrogen.
Discharge
To relieve of a charge, the conversion of the chemical energy of a battery into electrical energy.
DMFC
Abbreviation of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell.
Dry Battery
A battery in which the electrolyte is immobilized, being either in the form of a paste or absorbed into the separator material.
Edison Battery
The Nickel Iron Battery was invented by Thomas Edison in 1901.
Electrical Insulation
A material used to prevent the leakage of electricity from a conductor and to provide mechanical spacing or support as protection against accidental contact with the conductor.
Electrochemical Cell
A device that uses a redox reaction to produce electricity, or a device that uses electricity to drive a redox reaction in the desired direction.
Electrochemical Energy Storage
The storage of energy in a system such as a battery.
Electrochemical Gradient
The sum of the gradients of concentration and of electric charge of an ion across a membrane.
Electrochemical Potential
The energy required to maintain a separation of charge and of concentration across a membrane.
Electrochemistry Calculations
Lists all Electrochemistry Calculations in the Encyclopaedia
Electrochemistry Conversions
Lists all Electrochemistry Conversions in the Encyclopaedia
Electrochemistry Weblinks
Lists all Electrochemistry Weblinks in the Encyclopaedia
Electrolyser
An electrochemical device which works like a fuel cell in reverse and can split water into its constituent molecules, hydrogen and oxygen, by passing an electric current through it.
Electrolysis
Changing the chemical structure of a compound using electrical energy.
Electrolyte
A substance that dissociates fully or partially into ions when dissolved in a solvent, producing a solution that conducts electricity.
Electrolytic cell
A cell that uses electrical energy to produce a chemical change that would otherwise not occur spontaneously.
Electrophysiology
The study of the electrical properties of living tissue.
Electropolishing
A process that produces a bright, shiny surface on a metal using an electrolytic cell under conditions that projections on the surface are dissolved faster than the smoother areas.
Electroseparation
A process that uses electrolysis to selectively remove a constituent from solution.
Electroviscosity
The phenomenon of a change in viscosity due to the presence of charge on particles suspended in a solvent.
Equivalent Lithium Content
An estimation of the amount of lithium in a lithium-ion battery based on the Ah or Wh capacity.
Faraday Constant
F = 9.648456x104 Cmol-1
Faraday′s Laws of Electrolysis
Fundamental laws of electrochemistry discovered by Faraday.
Faradic Current
The current that is flowing through an electrochemical cell and is causing, or caused by, chemical reactions occurring at the electrode surfaces.
Flow Battery
A battery system in which the active materials of one or both electrode polarities are stored externally and pumped to the battery during operation.
Fuel Cell Poisoning
The lowering of a fuel cell′s efficiency due to impurities in the fuel binding to the catalyst.
Fuel Cell Stack
Individual fuel cells connected in a series. Fuel cells are stacked to increase voltage.
Galvanic Corrosion
Corrosion associated with the current of a galvanic cell consisting of two dissimilar conductors in an electrolyte or two similar conductors in dissimilar electrolytes.
Galvanic Series
This determines the nobility of metals and semi-metals and ranks them, note that this rank is dependent on the electrolyte that the metal is submerged in.
Galvanoplasty
An archaic name for Electroforming.
Galvanostat
An electronic instrument that controls the current through an electrochemical cell at a preset value, as long as the needed cell voltage and current do not exceed the compliance limits of the galvanostat.
Galvanostatic Technique
An electrochemical measuring technique for electrochemical analysis or for the determination of the kinetics and mechanism of electrode reactions based on the control of the current flowing through the system.
Geometric Electrode Area
The surface area of an electrode calculated from its geometrical dimensions.
High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell
A variant of the PEMFC which uses a mineral acid based electrolyte rather than an aqueous one and can operate at temperatures up to 200°C.
HT PEMFC
Abbreviation of High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell.
Immobilised Electrolyte
An electrolyte made motionless by use of a gel additive or AGM separator.
Indifferent Electrolyte
Another name for Supporting Electrolyte.
Inert Electrolyte
Another name for Supporting Electrolyte.
Internal Short-Circuit
A short circuit within a component.
Ionic Conductor
A material that conducts electricity with ions as charge carriers.
Ionic Current
Electrical current with ions as charge carriers.
Ionic Liquid
A liquid containing mostly ions, a molten salt in which the molecules are fully dissociated.
Ionic Mobility
A quantitative measure of the ability of an ion to move under the influence of a potential difference in solution.
Iron Air Battery
Uses electrodes made of iron and carbon.
Irreversible Electrode
An electrode with an irreversible electrode reaction.
Lead Acid Battery
A battery with electrodes of lead oxide and metallic lead that are separated by an electrolyte of sulphuric acid.
Lithium Ion Battery
Lithium ions are added to a carbon electrode instead of using metallic lithium as the anode.
Lithium Iron Sulphide Battery
Lithium alloy anode and an iron sulphide cathode suspended in an electrolyte molten salt solution.
Lithium Metal Anode Battery
Lithium metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable batteries due to its extremely high theoretical specific capacity.
Lithium Polymer Battery
The battery has a lithium anode that is separated from the cathode by a thin polymer electrolyte.
Lithium Sulphur Battery
A rechargeable battery with a high energy density.
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells
Carbonate salts are the electrolyte. Heated to 650deg;C, the salts melt and conduct carbonate ions (CO3) from the cathode to the anode.
Nickel Cadmium Battery
The battery has a nickel-hydroxide cathode, a cadmium anode, and aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte.
Nickel Iron Battery
Cathodes of nickel-oxide and anodes of iron in a potassium hydroxide solution.
Nickel Metal Hydride Battery
The battery has a nickel-hydroxide cathode, a metal hydride anode, and aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte.
Nickel Zinc Battery
Nickel oxide cathode and a zinc anode in a small amount of potassium hydroxide electrolyte.
Nominal System Voltage
A nominal value assigned to designate a system of a given voltage class.
Nonelectrolyte
A substance which does not ionize in solution.
Over Discharge
To discharge a battery cell to a voltage below its end-point voltage.
Passive Cell Balancing
This operates by discharging cells with high SoC through a resistor and thus equalling out the SoC on the cells as a whole.
PEM Fuel Cell
Abbreviation of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell.
Perfluorosulphonic Acid

C4HF9O4S

Most commonly used electrolyte in a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell.

Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell
Operates at temperatures around 150 to 200°C and use phosphoric acid as the electrolyte.
Photoelectrochemical Cell
A type of photovoltaic device in which the electricity induced in the cell is used immediately within the cell to produce a chemical, such as hydrogen, which can then be withdrawn for use.
Plate
One of the electrodes in a storage battery or A planar body whose thickness is small compared with its other dimensions.
Polarisation Curve
A measure of cell performance that indicates the relationship between current density and voltage across a fuel cell.
Polarity
The positive or negative direction of an electrical, acoustical or magnetic force.
Pouch Cell Battery
A soft case battery cell.
Prismatic Battery
A cased rectangular cuboid battery cell with a hard case that may or may not need additional structural support.
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell
Works with a polymer electrolyte in the form of a thin permeable sheet. This membrane is small and light and works at low temperatures around 80deg;C.
Ragone Plot
A chart used for performance comparison of various energy storing devices.
Rechargeable Battery
A battery in which the chemical reaction system providing the electrical current is easily chemically reversible.
Redox Potential
The potential of a redox electrode.
Reference Electrode
An electrode that has a well known and stable equilibrium electrode potential.
Reformer
A device that extracts pure hydrogen from hydrocarbons.
Regenerative Fuel Cells
Several fuel cell types in which fuel and, in some types, the oxidant are regenerated from the oxidation product.
Reversible Fuel Cell
A reversible, or regenerative, fuel cell can operate as a fuel cell, or in reverse like an electrolyser.
Sacrificial Anode
Coupling of a more active metal to a structure resulting in a galvanic current flow through the corroding electrolyte.
Sealed Battery
A battery which can be operated without regard to position.
Silver Oxide Battery
A small, non-rechargeable battery used in devices such as watches and calculators.
Silver Zinc Battery
The cathode is a silver screen pasted with silver oxide, the anode is a porous plate of zinc, and the electrolyte is a solution of potassium hydroxide saturated with zinc hydroxide.
Slow Charge
Charging at a rate of about 5-10% of a battery′s rated capacity.
Sodium Nickel Chloride Battery
This consists of a negative liquid sodium electrode and a solid positive electrode containing nickel chloride and nickel.
Sodium Sulphur Battery
Uses a solid electrolyte of beta aluminium and liquid electrodes of molten sulphur and sodium.
SOFC
Abbreviation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell.
Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
A fuel cell that employs a solid, ionically conductive material as electrolyte.
Spiral Wound Lead Acid Battery
Instead of having the electrodes as flat plates, the electrodes are rolled up in a spiral.
Standard Cell
A non-rechargeable cell whose emf is accurately known and remains sufficiently constant.
Standard Rate Constant of Electrode Reaction
The rate constant of an electrode reaction at the standard electrode potential.
State of Charge
The amount of electrical charge in the battery, expressed as a percentage of the difference between the fully-charged and fully-discharged states.
Stray Current Corrosion
A form of attack caused by electrical currents going through an unintentional path.
Strong Electrolyte
A strong electrolyte is a solute that completely dissociates into ions in solution.
Supporting Electrolyte
An electrolyte added to the solution for the sole purpose to increase the solution conductivity, while the electrolyte does not take part in any reactions.
Swamping Electrolyte
Another name for Supporting Electrolyte.
Taper Charging
A charging regime delivering moderately high rate of current when the battery is at a low state of charge and tapering the charging current to lower rates as the battery is charged.
Thermocell
Abbreviation of Thermogalvanic Cell.
Thermogalvanic Cell
A galvanic cell consisting of two identical half cells that are kept at different temperatures.
Three Electrode Cell
An electrochemical cell containing a working electrode, a counter electrode, and a reference electrode.
True Electrode Area
The surface area of an electrode taking into consideration the surface roughness.
Two Electrode Cell
A classical electrochemical cell containing two electrodes.
Under Potential Deposition
The electrodeposition of a metal on a foreign metal at potentials less negative than the equilibrium potential of the deposition reaction.
Voltaic Cell
Or more commonly known as a battery.
Voltaic Pile
An early battery consisting of disks of dissimilar metals (usually zinc and copper) separated by moist paper or cloth soaked in an electrolyte solution.
Water Electrolysis
Process for the electrochemical decomposition of water in a divided electrolytic cell by electrolysis.
Weak Electrolyte
A weak electrolyte is a solute that incompletely dissociates into ions in solution.
Working Electrode
The electrode in a three-electrode cell where the action takes place.
Zinc Air Battery
Uses a zinc anode, a porous carbon cathode which absorbs oxygen from the air and a base electrolyte.
Zinc Bromide Battery
Two oppositely charged liquids are passed through an ion-exchange membrane to produce electricity.
Zinc Chloride Battery
A chemistry used in some heavy-duty batteries.
Zinc-Carbon Cell
Alternative name for a Leclanche Cell.

See also: Anode, Battery, Cathode.

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Subjects: Chemistry