A process used to separate a liquid from a solution, e.g. to get pure water from salt water. All or some portion of a substance is vapourized and then condensed and collected.
Distillation Per Ascensum
Distillation with the collecting vessel above the heated vessel.
Distillation Per Decensum
Any distillation where the collecting vessel is below the heated vessel.
Distillation Per Obliquium
Distillation in a retort used for substances of
- relatively low vapor pressure
- other properties that make distillation difficult, e.g., honey.
Distillation with Addition
Adding some substance prior to distillation that will aid the process by:
- loosening the desired volatile product chemically from its compound.
- fixing the product not desired, thus retaining it in the vessel
- by adding a volatile substance desired, thus making the fixed substance volatile (addition of properties).