# Classical Mechanics Topics

6.67e-11 Nm2kg-2
Gravitational constant.
9.80665 ms-2
Standard acceleration due to gravity.
Absolute Motion
Motion relative to a fixed point.
Absolute Space
Space that is not affected by what occupies it or occurs within it and that provides a standard for distinguishing inertial systems from other frames of reference.
Absolute Velocity
The vector sum of the velocity of a fluid parcel relative to the earth and the velocity of the parcel due to the earth′s rotation.
Accelerate
To increase the speed of an object.
Acceleration
The change in velocity divided by the time it takes to make the change.
Angular Frequency
The frequency of a steady recurring phenomenum in radians per second.
Angular Momentum
A vector quantity giving the rotational momentum.
Angular Rate
The rate of change of angle.
Angular Velocity
The rate of change of angle turned in radians.
Ballistics
Ignoring the curvature of the Earth, frictional losses and that g is constant it is possible to calculate the trajectory of a projectile that is fired with a given initial velocity and elevation.
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Collision
An encounter between two ojects that changes their existing momentum and energy conditions.
Conservation of Angular Momentum
The total angular momentum of a system is constant unless an external torque acts on it.
Conservation of Momentum
If the net external force on a system is zero, the total linear momentum of the system does not change.
Density
The derived SI unit of density is kgm-3
Elastic Collisions
When two bodies collide their total momentum is conserved unless external forces act on them.
Equivalence Principle
Constant acceleration is completely equivalent to a uniform gravitational field.
Escape Velocity
This is the initial velocity that an object would have to have if projected from the surface of a body (e.g. Earth) to reach infinity before coming to rest.
G-Force
The apparent increase in weight of an object due to gravitational forces.
Gravity, Standard Acceleration due to
g = 9.80665 ms-2
Group Velocity
A group may be made up of a number of different frequencies, wavelengths and velocities that are superposed. Such a group would disperse with time if the wave velocity of each component is different.
Kinematics
A branch of mechanics dealing with the motion of rigid bodies without reference to their masses or the forces acting on the bodies.
Kinetic Energy
The energy that a body possesses solely because it is moving.
Kinetic Heating
Heating as a result of air friction.
Linear Momentum
A vector quantity equal to the product of an object's mass and its velocity.
Mass Density
Mass per unit volume.
Momentum
Usually refers to linear momentum, a vector quantity equal to the product of an object's mass and its velocity.
Newtonian Mechanics
The system of mechanics based upon Newton laws of motion in which mass and energy are considered as separate, conservative, mechanical properties, in contrast to their treatment in relativistic mechanics.
Parallelogram of Forces
A method of resolving two forces acting on an object. This is also a great way of visualising the forces and hence resultant.
Periapsis
The point of an orbit nearest to the centre of attraction of an orbiting body.
Pericentre
The point on a spacecrafts orbit at which it is nearest to the centre of mass of the system.
Pericynthian
That point in the trajectory of a vehicle which is closest to the moon.
Perigee
The point of a satellite's orbit closest to Earth.
Perigee Speed
The speed of an orbiting body when at perigee.
Perihelic Opposition
When the Earth passes between a planet and the Sun when the planet is at its closest from the Sun.
Perihelion
The point of closest approach for any object orbiting the sun.
The local space rate of change of any potential.
Rotational Inertia
The property of an object that measures its resistance to a change in its rotational speed.
Rotational Kinetic Energy
The energy a body possesses due to it's rotation about an axis.
Standard Acceleration due to Gravity
g = 9.80665 ms-2
Static
A fixed nonvarying condition, without motion.
Static Equilibrium
Equilibrium which does not include inertial forces.
Static Friction
The frictional force between two surfaces at rest relative to each other.
A condition devoid of transient effects.
Theoretical Density
This is the density of a material calculated from the atomic weight and crystal structure.
Theoretical Rocket
An ideal Rocket.
Torque
The torque or turning moment acting on a body is defined as the product of the magnitude of the force and the perpendicular distance of the line of action of the force from the axis about which the body is being rotated.
Two Body Problem
Classical celestial mechanics which treats of the relative motion of two point masses under their mutual gravitational attraction.
Velocity
Velocity is a vector quantity that specifies the time rate of change of displacement with respect to a reference frame.
Velocity of Escape
This is the initial velocity that an object would have to have if projected from the surface of a body (e.g. Earth) to reach infinity before coming to rest.
Velocity Time Profile
A plot of velocity versus time. The area under thge graph is the total distance travelled.

Subjects: Mechanical Engineering Physics