Boron

Boron is a non-metallic element which occurs in several allotropes. It is rarely found in nature, normally occurring as borates or orthoboric acid. Hard yellow crystals or brown amorphous powder. Amorphous boron is the more common allotrope and exists as a dark powder which is unreactive towards water, oxygen, acids and alkalis. Boron finds importance within nuclear reactors due to its neutron absorbing capabilities, boron steel being used as control rod material. Boron compounds are used for a number of applications including the manufacture of certain grades of glass and detergents. Boron will react directly with most metals to produce metal borides which are hard, inert binary compounds of various formulae and arrangements of the boron atoms.


Symbol
B

Uses
Commonly used as the dopant in photovoltaic devices or cell material.

Discovered
1808 by L.J. Lussac and L.J. Thenard (in Paris) and Sir Humphrey Davy (in London).

Abundance
10ppm in the earth’s crust. The principal ore is borax, Na2 B4 O7 .xH2 O

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Atomic number 5 Clip
Atomic / Molecular Weight 10.811 gmol-1Clip
Density 2466 kgm-3Clip
Lattice constant 1017 fmClip
Melting Point 2403 KClip
Boiling Point 3973 KClip
Linear expansivity 0.0000047 K-1Clip
Specific heat capacity 1030 Jkg-1K-1Clip
Thermal conductivity 32 Wm-1K-1Clip
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See also: Boron Monoxide, Boron Nitride, Boron Suboxide, Boron Trioxide, Gay-Lussac, Joseph Louis, Periodic Table, Zip Fuel.

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Subjects: Chemistry