Aviation Topics

Aerobatics
Voluntary manoeuvres, initiated by a pilot, other than those for conventional flight.
Aerodynamic Vehicle
A device, such as an airplane, glider, etc., capable of flight only within a sensible atmosphere and relying on aerodynamic forces to maintain flight.
Aerofoil
An aerofoil is shaped so that air flows faster over the top than under the bottom. There is, therefore, a greater pressure below the aerofoil than above it. This difference in pressure produces the lift.
Aeronautics
The term "aeronautics" originated in France, and was derived from the Greek words for "air" and "to sail".
Aerospace
Lists all Aerospace topics in the Encyclopaedia
Aerostat
Denotes a lighter than air craft.
Aileron
These are situated on the trailing (back) edge of the wing and are used to make the aircraft roll.
Air Brake
Used to reduce the speed of an aeroplane.
Airbrake
An aerodynamic control which can be extended to increase drag and slow down an aircraft.
Aircraft
Any structure, machine, or contrivance, especially a vehicle, designed to be supported by the air.
Airframe
The structure of an aircraft, without power plant and systems.
Airship
A powered lighter-than-air craft.
Altitude Chamber
A chamber that can simulate conditions at different altitudes.
Angle of Pitch
The angle, as seen from the side, between the longitudinal body axis of an aircraft or similar body and a chosen reference line or plane, usually the horizontal plane.
Angle of Yaw
The angle, as seen from above, between the longitudinal body axis of an aircraft, rocket, or the like and a chosen reference direction.
Autogyro
An aeroplane that flies by virtue of the lift generated by freewheeling rotating wings set windmill fashion above the fuselage.
Autorotation
Automatic rotation of a rotary wing due to forward, or downward, movement of an autogyro.
Aviation Books
Lists all Aviation Books in the Encyclopaedia
Aviation Calculations
Lists all Aviation Calculations in the Encyclopaedia
Aviation Conversions
Lists all Aviation Conversions in the Encyclopaedia
Aviation Weblinks
Lists all Aviation Weblinks in the Encyclopaedia
Balloon
A lighter than air craft. The Montgolfier brothers made the first flight in a hot air balloon in 1783.
Ballute
A cross between a balloon and a parachute, used to brake the free fall of sounding rockets.
Biplane
An airplane with two sets of wings, one on top of the other.
Blown Flaps
Aerodynamic surface over which bleed air is discharged at high speed to prevent breakaway of the normal airflow.
CAA
Abbreviation of Civil Aviation Authority.
Civil Aviation Authority
The UK′s independent specialist aviation regulator. Its activities include economic regulation, airspace policy, safety regulation and consumer protection.
Cockpit
Enclosed or semi enclosed area for the pilot and co-pilot of an aeroplane.
Constant-Speed Propeller
One which governs an engine at its optimum speed, the blade pitch being increased or decreased automatically to achieve this result.
Cowling
The name of the fairing which, usually, encloses an engine on an aeroplane.
Delta Wing
An aircraft wing that when viewed in plan has the shape of an isosceles triangle.
Dive Brake
Drag-inducing surface deployed in a dive to maintain speed below structural limitations, or improve controllability.
Drogue Parachute
Parachute attached to a body, used to slow it down.
Drone
A pilotless aircraft, usually following a predetermined or programmed set of manoeuvres.
Elevator
Movable control surface, attached to the trailing edge of an aircraft tailplane to control pitching movements.
Elevon
Movable control surfaces which act collectively as elevators, but differentially as ailerons.
Flaps
Hinged surfaces normally located at the trailing edge of the wing designed to increase the wings lift and the slow-flight characteristics.
Flight Controls
Moveable surfaces on the aircraft that control its path through the air.
Fuselage
The main body of the aircraft.
Glide Angle
The angle between the horizontal and the glide path of an aircraft.
Glide Ratio
The ratio of the horizontal distance traveled to the vertical distance descended in a glide.
Helicopter
An aircraft that produces lift using airfoils that are driven and rotate about a vertical axis.
High-Wing Monoplane
An aircraft which has its single wing mounted high on the fuselage.
Icing
Condition arising when atmospheric moisture freezes on the external surfaces of an aircraft.
JATO
Utilising solid or liquid fuel rockets to augment the take-off power of an aircraft′s engines.
Jet Assisted Takeoff
Utilising solid or liquid fuel rockets to augment the take-off power of an aircraft′s engines.
Landing Weight
Normal maximum weight at which an aircraft is permitted to land.
Left Hand Tractor Propeller
The propeller rotated anti-clockwise when viewed from the rear.
Low-Wing Monoplane
An aircraft which has its single wing mounted low on the fuselage.
Mid-Wing Monoplane
An aircraft which has its single wing mounted in a mid-position on the fuselage.
Monoplane
An aircraft with one set of wings.
Parasol Monoplane
A fixed-wing aircraft which has its single wing strut-mounted above the fuselage.
Pitch Angle
The angle, as seen from the side, between the longitudinal body axis of an aircraft or similar body and a chosen reference line or plane, usually the horizontal plane.
Propeller
An assembly of radially disposed blades with an airfoil shape that when rotated in air produce thrust.
RATO
Utilising solid or liquid fuel rockets to augment the take-off.
Reverse Thrust
Thrust applied to a moving object in a direction to oppose the object′s motion.
Right Hand Tractor Propeller
The propeller rotated clockwise when viewed from the rear.
Rocket Assisted Takeoff
Utilising solid or liquid fuel rockets to augment the take-off.
Rudder
The moving part of the vertical tail surface of an aeroplane which provides yaw control or the device in the water on a boat that provides directional control.
Sailplane
An unpowered heavier-than-air craft designed primarily for soaring flight.
Service Ceiling
Normally height at which an aircraft can maintain a maximum rate of climb of 100 ft/minute.
Spinner
A streamlined fairing over a propeller hub.
Stall
Condition which arises when the smooth airflow over a wing′s upper surface breaks down and its lift is destroyed.
Swept Wing
Wing of which the angle between the wing leading-edge and the centre line of the rear fuselage is less than 90°.
Swing Wing
More formally known as a Variable Geometry Wing.
Takeoff
Phase of flight in which an aerospace vehicle goes from the ground to flying in the air.
Take-Off Weight
Maximum allowable weight of an aircraft at the beginning of its take-off run.
Tractor Propeller
Propeller mounted forward of the engine.
Triplane
A fixed wing aeroplane with 3 wings arranged one above the other.
Tumble
To rotate end over end.
UAV
Abbreviation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
A machine which functions either by the remote control of a navigator, or pilot or autonomously.
Variable Geometry Wing
Wings which, fully extended, give the best low-speed performance for take-off and landing, and can be swept in flight to optimum positions for best cruising and high-speed flight performance.
Vector Steering
A method of steering rockets and spacecraft where one or more thrusters are gimbal mounted so that the direction of the thrust vector may be moved in relation to the centre of gravity of the vehicle to produce a turning movement.
Vehicle Mass Ratio
The ratio of the final mass of a vehicle mf, after all propellant has been used, to the initial mass m0: vehicle mass ratio = mf/m0.
Wing
A surface that has an airfoil cross-section and is used to generate lift.
Wing Loading
The aircraft mass divided by the wing area.
Wing Warping
The earliest form of roll control was produced by warping the whole wing.
Yaw Angle
The angle, as seen from above, between the longitudinal body axis of an aircraft, rocket, or the like and a chosen reference direction.

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Subjects: Aerodynamics Transport