The gases around a planet or star.


A dry atmosphere consisting almost entirely of nitrogen (78.1% volume mixing ratio) and oxygen (20.9% volume mixing ratio), together with a number of trace gases, such as argon (0.93% volume mixing ratio), helium, and radiatively active greenhouse gases (eg carbon dioxide at 0.035% volume mixing ratio) and ozone.

The atmosphere also contains water vapour, the amount of water vapour is highly variable but typically 1% volume mixing ratio. The atmosphere also contains aerosols and particulates.

See also: atmo-metre, Free Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, Planet, Star, Technical Atmosphere.

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Subjects: Physics