Architecture Topics

Adobe
Sun-dried brick used in places with warm, dry climates, such as Egypt and Mexico.
Air Set Cement
A cement that sets through loss of water.
Ambulatory
A continuous aisle in a circular building, as in a church.
Apse
A semicircular area; in most churches it contains the altar.
Arabesque
Ornament consisting of garlands of foliage with figures, fancifully interlaced to form graceful curves and painted, inlaid, or carved in low relief.
Arcade
A series of arches supported by columns or piers, or a passageway formed by these arches.
Arch
A curved structural member that spans an opening and is generally composed of wedge-shaped blocks that transmit the downward pressure out laterally.
Architectural Coatings
Coverings such as paint and roof tar that are used on exteriors of buildings.
Architecture Books
Lists all Architecture Books in the Encyclopaedia
Architecture Calculations
Lists all Architecture Calculations in the Encyclopaedia
Architecture Conversions
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Architecture Weblinks
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Architrave
The lowest part of an entablature resting on the capital of a column. Also, the holdings around a doorway.
Area
The derived SI unit of area is the m2.
Ashlar Masonry
Uniform, rectangular blocks of stone with parallel faces, as used in the construction of classical Greek and Roman buildings.
Atrium
In an ancient Roman structure, a central room open to the sky, usually having a pool for the collection of rainwater.
Attic
The part of the entablature above the cornice, serving to hide the roof.
Balconet
A false balcony constructed with a low railing outside a window.
Balcony
A projection from an upper story window or door surrounded by railing.
Baldachin
A richly ornamented canopy structure supported by columns, suspended from a roof, or projected from a wall, as over an altar.
Balustrade
A series of balusters supporting the railing of a stairs or balcony.
Baroque
A style that flourished in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
Bauhaus
The style of the Bauhaus School, founded in Germany by Walter Gropius in 1919, emphasizing simplicity, functionalism, and craftsmanship.
Bay Window
A window placed in a projection of an exterior wall of a building is called a bay window when the wall projection extends all the way down to a corresponding projection of the foundation.
Belgian Truss
Structural framework for supporting loads over long spans.
Bowstring Truss
Structural framework for supporting loads over long spans.
Buttress
An exterior masonry structure that opposes the lateral thrust of an arch or a vault and adds extra support.
Byzantine
A style dating from the fifth century that is characterized by masonry construction around a central plan.
Campanile
A bell tower usually not actually attached to a church; also, lofty towers that form parts of buildings.
Cantilever
A horizontal projection, such as a balcony or beam, supported at one end only.
Casement Window
A window in which the frame is built in such a way that the sash can open out like a door when installed in a window unit.
Cement
A substance that can be used to build together aggregates of sand or stone into a cohesive structure. May be a single compound or a mixture. May be hydraulic set, air set or chemical set.
Chemical Set Cement
A cement that sets through reaction or precipitation.
Classical Revival
The Italian Renaissance or neoclassical movements in England and the United States in the nineteenth century that looked to the traditions of Greek and Roman antiquity.
Classicism
A tradition of Greek and Roman antiquity, distinguished by the qualities of simplicity, harmony, and balance.
Clerestory
Part of an interior rising above adjacent rooftops, permitting the passage of light.
Cloister
In religious institutions, a courtyard with covered walks.
Colonnade
A row of columns, usually equidistant.
Corbel
A projecting wall member used as a support for some element of the superstructure.
Corinthian Order
The last of the three Greek orders, similar to the Ionic, but with the capital decorated with carvings of the acanthus leaf.
Cornice
A cornice is an ornamental molding, or composition of two or more moldings, located at the exterior wall-roof junction of a building, beneath the eaves, or beneath the sloping ends of a gable roof.
Diaphram Arch
A transverse, wall-bearing arch that divides a vault or a ceiling into compartments, providing a kind of firebreak.
Dome
A roof formed by a series of arches, roughly forming a semicircle.
Doric Order
The first and simplest of the three Greek orders and the only one that normally has no base.
Dormer Window
A window housed in a gable or similar structure affixed to the sloping part of a roof, providing natural light and ventilation to the rooms beneath the roof.
Double Hung Window
Two sashes which, when both are closed, are positioned one immediately above the other.
Entablature
The upper horizontal part of an order, between a capital and the roof; it consists of the architrave, frieze, and cornice.
Facade
Any important face of a building, usually the principal front with the main entrance.
Fink Truss
Structural framework for supporting loads over long spans.
Flat Howe Truss
Structural framework for supporting loads over long spans.
Flat Pratt Truss
Structural framework for supporting loads over long spans.
Frieze
The middle part of an entablature, often decorated with spiral scrolls.
Gargoyle
A spout placed on the roof gutter of a Gothic building to carry away rainwater, commonly carved fancifully as in the shapes of animal heads.
Georgian
Prevailing style of English architecture during the reigns of George I, II, and III 1714 to 1820.
Gold Leaf
Very thin gold sheet made by rolling or hammering gold and used for gilding.
Gothic
Style employed in Europe during the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries.
Hydraulic Set Cement
A cement that sets through reaction with water.
Leaded Glass Window
Windows that are constructed of various shaped pieces of glass plate that are held together by lead solder between panes.
Lintel
The horizontal beam placed over an opening.
Minaret
A slender, lofty tower with balconies.
Module
The measurement that architects use to determine the proportions of a structure, for example, the diameter of a column.
Narthex
An enclosed passage from the nave to the main entrance of a church.
Nave
The principal area of a church, extending from the main area to the transept.
Norman
Style of buildings erected by the Normans 1066 to 1154 based on the Italian Romanesque.
Pagoda
A temple or sacred building, typically in an Asian nation, usually pyramidal, forming a tower with upward curving roofs over the individual stories.
Parquet Floor
A floor covering laid out in a geometric design composed of small pieces of wood.
Pediment
In a classical-style building, the triangular segment between the horizontal entablature and the sloping roof.
Pendentive
A curved support shaped like an inverted triangle, used to support a dome.
Pier
A large pillar used to support a roof.
Pitch
Pitch is the distance between the teeth on a gear.
Pitched Howe Truss
Structural framework for supporting loads over long spans.
Pitched Pratt Truss
Structural framework for supporting loads over long spans.
Plasterboard
A board used in large sheets as a backing or as a substitute for plaster in walls and consisting of fiberboard, paper, or felt, bonded to a hardened gypsum core.
Portico
A structure usually attached to a building, such as a porch, consisting of a roof supported by piers or columns.
Pyramid
In ancient Egypt, a quadrilateral masonry mass with steeply sloping sides meeting at an apex, used as a tomb.
Quarry Tile
A large clay floor tile, usually unglazed.
Rabbet
The portion of a doorframe into which the door fits.
Relief
Moldings and ornamentation projecting from the surface of a wall.
Renaissance
Styles existing in Italy in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
Rococo
A style originating in France around 1720 and developed out of Baroque, characterized by its ornamentation of shellwork and foliage.
Romanesque
Style developed in western and southern Europe after 1000 and characterized by heavy masonry, the round arch, barrel and groin vaults, narrow openings, vaulting rib, the vaulting shaft, and central and western towers.
Room
An enclosed space.
Room Acoustics
The general acoustic requirements of a room depend on the use.
Room Modes
Frequencies at which sound waves in a room resonate (in the form of standing waves), based on the room dimensions.
Soffit
The undersurface of a horizontal element of a building, especially the undersides of a stair or roof overhang.
Spire
A tall, tapering, acutely pointed roof to a tower, as in the top of a steeple.
Splaying
Walls are splayed when they are constructed somewhat "off square", i.e., a few degrees from the normal rectilinear form.
Tracery
Ornament of ribs, bars, etc., in panels or screens, as in the upper part of a Gothic window.
Tudor
Style of English architecture prevalent during the reigns of the Tudors 1485 to 1558.
Turret
A small tower, usually starting at some distance from the ground, attached to a building such as a castle or fortress.
Tuscan Order
A Roman order resembling the Doric without a fluted shaft.
Vault
An arched brick or stone ceiling or roof.
Vestibule
An entrance to a house that is usually enclosed.
Wainscoting
A wall facing, usually of wood, cut stone, or ceramic tile, that is carried only part way up a wall.
Warren Truss
Structural framework for supporting loads over long spans.
Westwork
In German Romanesque, a monumental entrance to a church consisting of porches and towers, with a chapel above.
Window
A piece of glass with plane parallel sides which admits light into or through an optical system and excludes dirt and moisture.

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